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Lal R.K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2012

The investigation was carried out to determine the stability and adaptability patterns of a set of ten released and commercial varieties of lemongrass (released by CIMAP, Lucknow), for commercial cultivation in different part/environments, namely, Pragati, Krishna, Cauvery, Nima, YEL-1, LMH-4 of Cymbopogon flaxuosus, Praman (Cymbopogon pendulus), T-1 (Cymbopogon citratus), CIMAP Suwarana and parent-1 (Cymbopogon khasianus) in a multi-year evaluation trial across three consecutive years. Among the objectives of multiyear essential oil yield field trials are the establishment of adaptation strategies for breeding programs and definition of domains for variety recommendations in lemongrass varieties. The adaptation strategy objectives focuses on responses of a set of varieties to obtain indications and generate predictions relative to future breeding material that may be produced from the genetic base of which the tested genotypes/varieties are assumed to be a representative sample, while, for cultivar recommendation the most important information concern the response of, and comparison between, high yielding varieties. Yield stability is one of the setback facing plant breeders in using/developing widely adapted varieties with superior yield of better quality. Based on the stability statistics, the different varieties can be classified as stable variety. The multivariate approach AMMI model (more authentic approach than univariate approach), have capability to provide a broader inferences on adaptability. Based on the AMMI model, varieties CIMAP Suwarna, showed the widest adaptability (most stable varieties) due to its ability to tolerate wide environmental conditions, temperature/or abiotic stress in different years/environments. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Luqman S.,University of Hawaii at Hilo | Luqman S.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Pezzuto J.M.,University of Hawaii at Hilo
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2010

The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) is found in nearly all animal cell types. It is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as stress, cytokines, free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, oxidized LDL and microbial antigens, and has been shown to regulate the expression of a number of genes including bcl-2, bcl-xl, cIAP, suvivin, TRAF, COX-2, MMP-9, iNOS and cell cycle-regulatory components. Many carcinogens, inflammatory agents and tumor promoters have been shown to activate NFκB, and resulting tumors demonstrate misregulated NFκB. Incorrect regulation of NFκB has been linked to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, septic shock, viral infection and improper immune development. Aberrant regulation of NFκB is involved in cancer development and progression as well as in drug resistance. Inhibitors of NFκB mediate effects potentially leading to antitumor responses or greater sensitivity to the action of antitumor agents. Tools have been developed for the rapid assessment of NFκB activity, so in concert with a better understanding of NFκB activation mechanisms, many agents capable of suppressing NFκB activation have been identified. The present article focuses on the functions of NFκB, its role in human cancer and the therapeutic potential and benefit of targeting NFκB by natural products in cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Kumar B.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Patra N.K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2010

Four single crosses (VG20 × SGE48, SGE48 × SG35II, VG26 × SG35II, and SG35II × VG20) in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) were analyzed to study the gene actions involved in the inheritance of quantitative traits, namely plant height, branches/plant, capsules/plant, peduncle length, capsule index, stigmatic rays, straw yield/plant, and morphine content. Simple additive, dominance, and epistatic genetic components were found to be significant for inheritance pattern. Dominance effect (h) was higher than additive effect (d). Digenic interaction indicated the prevalence of dominance × dominance (l) followed by additive × dominance (j) type epistasis. The significance of dominance (h) and dominance × dominance (l) indicated duplicate epistasis for all the traits and crosses except SG35II × VG20 for stigmatic rays. Biparental mating followed by recurrent selection involving desired recombinants may be utilized to improve the component traits. © 2010 The American Genetic Association. All rights reserved. Source


Meher J.G.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Yadav N.P.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Sahu J.J.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Sinha P.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2013

Context: Citronella oil is reported to have excellent mosquito-repellent activity. To develop a stable cream formulation (emulsion), its hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value is important. Objective: To determine required hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (rHLB) value of citronella oil and to develop stable cream formulation. Materials and Methods: Emulsions of citronella oil were prepared by phase inversion temperature technique using water, Tween 80 and Span 80. A first series of 11 emulsions with HLB values ranging from 5.0 to 15.0 and a second series of eight emulsions with smaller interval in HLB values from 11.0 to 13.8 were prepared. Emulsions were evaluated for creaming index, droplet size and turbidity to determine rHLB. Utilizing determined rHLB, citronella oil cream was formulated and evaluated for different texture parameters. rHLB of light liquid paraffin was also determined for validation of methodology. Results: rHLB of light liquid paraffin and citronella oil was determined to be 11.80 and 12.60, respectively. Stable citronella oil cream was developed with 10% emulsifier blend. Texture parameters were found to be consistent over the entire storage period. Discussion: Creaming index, droplet diameter, percent increase in droplet diameter and turbidity are the established parameters to determine rHLB and to develop stable emulsion. Emulsions with optimum emulsifier concentration resulted in less percentage creaming index, smallest droplet, less percentage increase in droplet diameter and highest turbidity. Texture properties evaluation ensures the stability of the developed cream. Conclusion: rHLB value of citronella oil was found 12.6 and a stable cream was formulated utilizing determined rHLB. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Kahlon A.K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Roy S.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Sharma A.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics | Year: 2010

Dehydrosqualene synthase of Staphylococcus aureus is involved in the synthesis of golden carotenoid pigment staphyloxanthin. This pigment of S. aureus provides the antioxidant property to this bacterium to survive inside the host cell. Dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM) is having structural similarity with the human squalene synthase enzyme which is involved in the cholesterol synthesis pathway in humans (Liu et al., 2008). Cholesterol lowering drugs were found to have inhibitory effect on dehydrosqualene synthase enzyme of S. aureus. The present study attempts to focus on squalene synthase inhibitors, lapaquistat acetate and squalestatins reported as cholesterol lowering agents in vitro and in vivo but not studied in context to dehydrosqualene synthase of S. aureus. Mode of binding of lapaquistat acetate and squalestatin analogs on dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM) enzyme of S. aureus was identified by performing docking analysis with Scigress Explorer Ultra 7.7 docking software. Based on the molecular docking analysis, it was found that the His18, Arg45, Asp48, Asp52, Tyr129, Gln165, Asn168 and Asp172 residues interacted with comparatively high frequency with the inhibitors studied. Comparative docking study with Discovery studio 2.0 also confirmed the involvement of these residues of dehydrosqualene synthase enzyme with the inhibitors studied. This further confirms the importance of these residues in the enzyme function. In silico ADMET analysis was done to predict the ADMET properties of the standard drugs and test compounds. This might provide insights to develop new drugs to target the virulence factor, dehydrosqualene synthase of S. aureus. ©Adenine Press (2010). Source

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