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Madhusudana Rao B.,Andhra University | Lalitha K.V.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology

World fisheries production is projected at 164 million tonnes in 2020, and a major increase in the quantity of fish produced is expected to originate from aquaculture. Diseases represent a severe threat to aquaculture productivity and natural/organic strategies to combat infectious diseases are gaining new ground to address the issues of antibiotic resistance of bacteria and issues related to antibiotic residues in aquatic food animals. Phage therapy is currently considered as a viable alternative to antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infections in aquaculture systems. A cocktail of lytic phages and a synergistic combination of phages and other antimicrobials are viable options to control bacterial infections and at the same time evade phage resistance. However, lysogenic phages have the ability to transform non-virulent bacterial strains in to virulent strains which may cripple aquatic food production and also threaten food safety. The review focuses on the roles of bacteriophages and their implications for aquatic food production and food safety. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ashraf P.M.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
Arabian Journal of Chemistry

Nano-sized diamond like carbon is synthesized mainly by chemical vapor deposition and plasma assisted techniques. Here, we report a novel method to synthesize nano-sized diamond-like carbon (DLC) from chemically reduced graphene. Chemically reduced graphene was transformed to nano-sized diamond-like carbon at 800. °C and was characterized using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. AFM and transmission electron micrographs exhibited the structural changes at different temperatures that led to the development of nano-sized DLCs. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of samples at different temperatures showed the rate-limiting step was at 700. °C and the formed DLC was having lowest polarization resistance. The polarization resistance resulted from impedance measurements at different stages of DLC development was varied similar to that of kinetics of thermal activation process highlighted the application of EIS for explaining reaction mechanisms. © 2016 The Author. Source

Sarkar P.C.,ICAR Indian Institute of natural resins and gums | Sahu U.,ICAR Indian Institute of natural resins and gums | Ninan G.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Ravishankar C.N.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
Journal of Food Science and Technology

The effect of edible coating using gum arabic on biochemical, microbiological, textural and sensory characteristics of fresh gutted mackerel stored at 4 °C was investigated. The results were further compared against the samples packed under vacuum (VP) and conventional polyethylene pouches (CP). Coating with gum arabic (GC) markedly retarded lipid oxidation process in gutted mackerel compared to VP and CP samples. Moreover, VP and CP samples showed higher degree of textural deterioration compared to GC samples. Microbiologically, the shelf life of chilled gutted Indian mackerel was estimated to be 7–8, 17 and 19–20 days for CP, GC and VP samples, respectively. The sensory analysis scores confirmed the efficacy of gum coating in retarding the spoilage process during chilled storage. The current study identifies the potential of edible coating with gum arabic to improve the overall quality of Indian mackerel and extend its storage life during chilled storage. © 2015 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) Source

Rahul Das M.S.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Bindu J.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Joshy C.G.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Zynudheen A.A.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
International Journal of Food Science and Technology

The effect of an addition of shrimp protein hydrolysate and shrimp powder on the physicochemical properties of extruded snack was studied. Rice flour and cornflour were used as base materials, and extrusion was done using corotating twin-screw extruder. A mixture response surface methodology was used to study the effect of ingredient mixture on the physical, functional and sensory properties of extrudates. Linear and quadratic mixture response regression model was fitted to the response variables, and it was evaluated using R2 values. Based on the desirability function score, the optimum combination of ingredient was 47.75% rice flour, 38.64% cornflour, 5.95% hydrolysate and 7.67% shrimp protein powder. It was observed that an addition of shrimp hydrolysate more than 5% (7.5%) improved the crispiness. Sensory evaluation revealed that shrimp hydrolysate and shrimp powder can be used at 5–7.5% level for developing protein-rich extruded products without affecting sensory characteristics. © 2016 Institute of Food Science and Technology Source

Minu P.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Lotliker A.A.,Indian National Center for Ocean Information Services | Shaju S.S.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Ashraf P.M.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | And 2 more authors.

The in situ remote sensing reflectance (R rs) and optically active substances (OAS) measured using hyperspectral radiometer, were used for optical classification of coastal waters in the southeastern Arabian Sea. The spectral R rs showed three distinct water types, that were associated with the variability in OAS such as chlorophyll-a (chl-a), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and volume scattering function at 650nm (β 650). The water types were classified as Type-I, Type-II and Type-III respectively for the three R rs spectra. The Type-I waters showed the peak R rs in the blue band (470nm), whereas in the case of Type-II and III waters the peak R rs was at 560 and 570nm respectively. The shifting of the peak R rs at the longer wavelength was due to an increase in concentration of OAS. Further, we evaluated six bio-optical algorithms (OC3C, OC4O, OC4, OC4E, OC3M and OC4O2) used operationally to retrieve chl-a from Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS), Ocean Colour Temperature Scanner (OCTS), Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM2). For chl-a concentration greater than 1.0mgm-3, algorithms based on the reference band ratios 488/510/520nm to 547/550/555/560/565nm have to be considered. The assessment of algorithms showed better performance of OC3M and OC4. All the algorithms exhibited better performance in Type-I waters. However, the performance was poor in Type-II and Type-III waters which could be attributed to the significant co-variance of chl-a with CDOM. © 2016 Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Source

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