The Central Institute of Fisheries Education is the only Deemed University for fisheries science in India. It is an institution of higher learning for fisheries science in India. CIFE has over four decades of leadership in HRD with its alumni aiding the development of fisheries and aquaculture world wide, and has notable research and technological advancements to its credit.The institute is one of the four main institutes under the Indian Council for Agricultural Research ; the other three being the Indian Veterinary Research Institute , The National Dairy Research Institute and the Indian Agriculture Research Institute A total of four subcentres operate under CIFE, including ones at Kolkata , Rohtak , Kakinada and Powerkheda . Wikipedia.
Rajesh N.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education |
Imelda-Joseph,Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute |
Paul Raj R.,Coastal Aquaculture Authority
Waste Management | Year: 2010
Vegetable waste typically has high moisture content and high levels of protein, vitamins and minerals. Its value as an agricultural feed can be enhanced through solid-state fermentation (SSF). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of the products derived by SSF of a mixture of dried vegetable waste powder and oil cake mixture (soybean flour, wheat flour, groundnut oil cake and sesame oil cake at 4:3:2:1 ratio) using fungi Aspergillus niger S14, a mangrove isolate, and A. niger NCIM 616. Fermentation was carried out for 9days at 35% moisture level and neutral pH. Significant (p<0.05) increase in crude protein and amino acids were obtained in both the trials. The crude fat and crude fibre content showed significant reduction at the end of fermentation. Nitrogen free extract (NFE) showed a gradual decrease during the fermentation process. The results of the study suggest that the fermented product obtained on days 6 and 9 in case of A. niger S14 and A. niger NCIM 616 respectively contained the highest levels of crude protein. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Srinandan C.S.,M. S. University of Baroda |
D'souza G.,M. S. University of Baroda |
Srivastava N.,National Institute of Virology |
Nayak B.B.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education |
Nerurkar A.S.,M. S. University of Baroda
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012
Influence of the frequently used carbon sources in nitrate removal processes were evaluated in a lab-scale biofilm reactor. The NO 3-N removal efficiency was in the order acetate>glucose>methanol>ethanol. Acetate-fed biofilm reduced nearly 100% NO 3-N with negligible amount of NO 2-N accumulation. Although 99% NO 3-N was reduced in the glucose-fed biofilm, substantial NH 3-N and NO 2-N accumulated. Methanol-fed biofilm reduced 72% of NO 3-N with accumulation of 2.2mgL -1 of NO 2-N, while biofilm formed in presence of ethanol showed 61% reduction in NO 3-N although relatively higher ratio of denitrifiers were observed. Acetate and ethanol-fed biofilm displayed characteristic biofilm architecture with voids, but the former had relatively higher thickness and diffusion distance. In presence of glucose and methanol, a confluent biofilm without characteristic voids was formed. Pseudomonas sp. numerically dominated the acetate and ethanol-fed biofilm, while Enterobacter sp. and Methylobacillus sp., were abundant in glucose and methanol biofilms respectively. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Makesh M.,University of Idaho |
Makesh M.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education |
Sudheesh P.S.,University of Idaho |
Cain K.D.,University of Idaho
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2015
Teleosts possess three immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain isotypes viz., IgM, IgT and IgD and all three isotypes are reported in rainbow trout. The expression of these Ig isotypes in response to different immunization routes was investigated and results provide a better understanding of the role these Igs in different tissues. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were immunized with an attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum strain, 259-93-B.17 grown under iron limiting conditions, by intraperitoneal, anal intubation and immersion routes. Serum, gill mucus, skin mucus and intestinal mucus samples were collected at 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post immunization by sacrificing four fish from each treatment group and the unimmunized control group, and the IgM levels were estimated by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, blood, gill, skin and intestinal tissue samples were collected for Ig gene expression studies. The secretory IgM, IgD and IgT gene expression levels in these tissues were estimated by reverse transcription quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). Levels of IgM in serum, gill and skin mucus increased significantly by 28 days after immunization in the intraperitoneally immunized group, while no significant increase in IgM level was observed in fish groups immunized by other routes. Secretory IgD and IgT expression levels were significantly upregulated in gills of fish immunized by the immersion route. Similarly, secretory IgT and IgD were upregulated in intestines of fish immunized by anal intubation route. The results confirm mucosal association of IgT and suggest that IgD may also be specialized in mucosal immunity and contribute to immediate protection to the fish at mucosal surfaces. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Kumar S.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education |
Varela M.F.,Eastern New Mexico University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2012
Bacterial pathogens that are multi-drug resistant compromise the effectiveness of treatment when they are the causative agents of infectious disease. These multi-drug resistance mechanisms allow bacteria to survive in the presence of clinically useful antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the efficacy of chemotherapy towards infectious disease. Importantly, active multi-drug efflux is a major mechanism for bacterial pathogen drug resistance. Therefore, because of their overwhelming presence in bacterial pathogens, these active multi-drug efflux mechanisms remain a major area of intense study, so that ultimately measures may be discovered to inhibit these active multi-drug efflux pumps. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Aklakur M.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education
Reviews in Aquaculture | Year: 2016
Aquaculture is set to grow amidst threats of new stressors and diseases. The increasing awareness on nutrition and feeding has led a paradigm shift towards therapeutic nutrition, an alternative aquaculture management strategy that can create a balance between productivity and long-term sustainability. The core objective behind this approach was to minimize the impact of stressors via neutralization of free radicals, repair of oxidative damage to biomolecules and membrane systems, immune augmentation and maintenance of normal physiological homoeostasis. The eventual shift of balance between oxidants and antioxidants leads to oxidative stress and subsequently immune suppression, pathological symptoms and slow growth. Therefore, in aquaculture the use of supplemental antioxidants and augmentation of endogenous cellular antioxidants becomes essential. Lipid rancidity is the major concern, which determines feed stability and storage time, besides the cellular antioxidant homoeostasis. As observed, ethoxyquin (EQ), the widely used synthetic antioxidant in animal feed industry, has growing human health hazard concerns. Efficient and cost-effective natural antioxidants are a real need of time. The most diverse marine ecosystem opens a new horizon for extraction and development of natural antioxidants from sea. The antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C, peptides, amino acids, chitooligosaccharide derivatives (COS), astaxanthin, carotenoids, sulphated polysaccharides (SPs), phlorotannins, phenolic compound and flavones had shown a great potential to be used in feed formulation, as an additive for feed quality maintenance and shelf life. Therefore, new industrial perspectives and novel approaches are required for isolation and development of bioactive substances with antioxidative property for cost-effective feed. © 2016 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Nayak S.K.,Nihon University |
Mukherjee S.C.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2011
Probotic selection could be detrimental for the success of aquaculture practices. While, in most of the cases emphasis is given to the production of antibacterial compounds, and in vitro inhibitory activities of a bacterium for choosing a probiotic strain, however, other criteria like non-antibiotic resistant, non-haemolytic nature and non-pathogenic potentiality of probiotic strain are often overlooked. We have screened gastrointestinal bacteria isolated from all the three species of Indian major carps viz., Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala for a suitable probiotic. Bacteria like Aeromonas (Aeromonas species, A. hydrophila), Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Plesiomonas, Bacillus (Bacillus species, B. subtilis) and Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas species, P. aeruginosa) exhibited antibacterial activities against different pathogens. Among these, B. subtilis was found to grow at a wider range of temperatures, pH and salt concentrations and was non-haemolytic, non-antibiotic resistant, non-pathogenic and inhibited all the tested primary and secondary pathogens. Dietary supplementation of the bacteria at 108CFUg-1 feed also enhanced the growth of Indian major carp, L. rohita. Based upon these characteristics, we aimed to develop a suitable probiotic for aquaculture practices. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Thachil M.T.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education |
Chouksey M.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education |
Gudipati V.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014
The effect of amylose-lipid complex formation during extrusion was studied with respect to expansion characteristics and oxidative stability of the extrudates. Full factorial design was adopted to investigate the effects of variables, amylose (two levels, 25% and 45%), types of lipid (coconut oil, fish oil and MaxEPA) and levels of lipid (1.5% and 3%), on amylose-lipid complex formation, expansion ratio, crispness, hardness and oxidative stability. Increased amylose content in feed mixture produced crispy extrudates with significantly higher (P < 0.05) amylose-lipid complex formation, greater radial expansion, lower hardness and higher oxidative stability. Amylose-lipid complex formation and its complimentary effect, that is, oxidative stability were significantly higher in extrudates incorporated with coconut oil compared to those with fish oil or MaxEPA. However, better physical properties viz. radial expansion, crispness and lesser hardness were displayed by extrudates added with MaxEPA followed by those with fish oil. Between these two, fish oil-incorporated extrudates exhibited significantly higher oxidative stability compared to MaxEPA incorporated products. Thus, the study demonstrates the usefulness of amylose rich corn flour to make oxidatively stable fish oil-incorporated extrudates with better expansion characteristics. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2013 Institute of Food Science and Technology.
Kumar R.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2010
Seafood, including fish, shrimp, clam, crab, mussel, oyster, lobster, squid, octopus, and cuttlefish samples, was used to compare the recovery of Salmonella serovars by different selective enrichment and isolation media. Thesamples were selectively enriched in Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broth and tetrathionate broth (TT), followed by selective isolation on Hektoen enteric (HE) agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) agar, bismuth sulfite (BS) agar, and Brilliant Green (BG) agar media. Of 443 seafood samples analyzed, 108 were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The role of selective enrichment in Salmonella spp. recovery with RV medium was distinctly high (70%) compared to TT broth (30%). The selective enrichment in RV broth followed by selective isolation on XLD, HE, BS, and BG agar recovered Salmonella at levels of 56, 41, 28, and 16%, respectively. Similarly, after enrichment in TT broth, XLD and HE agars recovered 27 and 23% respectively. The recovery of Salmonella with enrichment in TT followed by isolation on BS and BG was abysmally low at 4.6 and 5%, respectively.There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the recovery of Salmonella using the combinations of XLD and HE media with selective enrichment in RV broth. However, performance difference (P <0.05) was observed in the recovery when BS and BG with RV, and XLD, HE, BS, and BG agars with TT broth were used. The present study showed that the combination of RV with XLD was the most efficient media for isolation of Salmonella from seafood when compared to other isolation media combinations.
Gireesh-Babu P.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education
Molecular biology reports | Year: 2012
Bacterial biosensors can measure pollution in terms of their actual toxicity to living organisms. A recombinant bacterial biosensor has been constructed that is known to respond to toxic levels of Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+). The zinc regulatory gene zntR and zntA promoter from znt operon of E. coli have been used to trigger the expression of GFP reporter protein at toxic levels of these ions. The sensor was induced with 3-800 ppm of Zn(2+), 0.005-4 ppm of Cd(2+) and 0.001-0.12 ppm of Hg(2+) ions. Induction studies were also performed in liquid media to quantify GFP fluorescence using fluorimeter. To determine the optimum culture conditions three different incubation periods (16, 20 and 24 h) were followed. Results showed an increased and consistent fluorescence in cells incubated for 16 h. Maximum induction for Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+) was observed at 20, 0.005 and 0.002 ppm, respectively. The pPROBE-zntR-zntA biosensor reported here can be employed as a primary screening technique for aquatic heavy metal pollution.
Verma D.K.,National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources ICAR |
Rathore G.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education
Journal of General and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013
Flavobacterium columnare is currently one of the important bacterial pathogens causing columnaris disease in several farmed fish species across diverse geographies. A presumptive columnaris disease outbreak in farmed catla, Catla catla (Hamilton), was investigated with the aim of isolating and identifying the causative pathogen. F. columnare (strain RDC-1) was isolated from gills of infected fish and identified by conventional biochemical methods, and through species specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the 16S rDNA for molecular identification. Strain RDC-1 belonged to genomovar II with ≥99% similarity to available 16S rDNA sequences of F. columnare, and also shared ≥70% DNA-DNA relatedness with known strains of F. columnare. Bath immersion studies of RDC-1 showed development of columnaris disease in catla fingerlings within 7 days, with a cumulative mortality of 83.3%. This is the first molecular confirmation of Flavobacterium columnare as a fish pathogen of farmed Catla catla in India.