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Brahmanand P.S.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Kumar A.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Ghosh S.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Roy Chowdhury S.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | And 6 more authors.
Current Science | Year: 2013

The need for achieving food security is felt significantly in the recent years due to enormous pressure from the ever-increasing population in India. Owing to the change in preferences in crop production techniques over a period of time, several new challenges draw attention to food security. This article discusses various challenges to food security in India. Critical analysis is made on challenges like crop diversification, issues related to bio-fuel and medicinal plant cultivation, climate change, mismatch between water demand and availability, recent status in production of highyielding crop varieties and agricultural crop pricing and insurance and new trends in globalization and urban encroachments.

Behera M.S.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres | Mahapatra P.K.,Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology | Singandhupe R.B.,Central Institute of Cotton Research | Kundu D.K.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted during 2005–06 and 2006–07 winter seasons to study the effect of drip irrigation regimes and fertility levels on physiological parameters, growth and yield of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. Dunal). The treatments consisted of three irrigation regimes, viz., I1: drip irrigation at 100 % pan evaporation (PE), I2: drip irrigation at 80 % PE and I3: drip irrigation at 60 % PE, combined with three fertility levels, i.e., F1: 100 %, F2: 75 % and F3: 50 % of recommended dose of NPK, control having surface irrigation and soil application of fertilizers. The cultivation of ashwagandha with application of drip irrigation at 80 % of pan evaporation along with application of 100 % recommended dose through fertigation resulted in significant improvement in growth, physiological parameters such as crop growth rate, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, and root and seed yields. © 2014, Indian Society for Plant Physiology.

Rao S.S.,Indian National Remote Sensing Centre | Sahadevan D.K.,Indian National Remote Sensing Centre | Wadodkar M.R.,Regional Remote Sensing Center Central | Nagaraju M./.S.S.,National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing | Year: 2016

The study was carried out to evaluate the global soil moisture product of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission’s (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) in central region of India for monsoon period of 2011 and 2013. The evaluation was done using 100, 75 in-situ soil moisture measurements of 2011, 2013 respectively. The in-situ measurements were spread across ~10,000 sq.km area which is roughly equal to 12 pixels of SMOS, AMSR-2 AMSR-E and TMI data. The result shows reasonable correlation of r2 = 0.506, 0.467 between SMOS and in-situ soil moisture for 2011, 2013 respectively. TMI exhibits good correlation of r2 = 0.55 in 2013 but failed to do the same in 2011. AMSR-2 soil moisture products shows moderate correlation r2 = 0.32 in 2011 but poorly correlated in 2013. © 2016 Indian Society of Remote Sensing

Sethi K.,Chaudhary Devi Lal University | Siwach P.,Chaudhary Devi Lal University | Verma S.K.,Central Institute of Cotton Research
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants | Year: 2015

Among the four cultivated cotton species, G. hirsutum (allotetraploid) presently holds a primary place in cultivation. Efforts to further improve this primary cotton face the constraints of its narrow genetic base due to repeated selective breeding and hence demands enrichment of diversity in the gene pool. G. arboreum (diploid species) is an invaluable genetic resource with great potential in this direction. Based on the dispersal and domestication in different directions from Indus valley, different races of G. arboreum have evolved, each having certain traits like drought and disease resistance, which the tetraploid cotton lack. Due to lack of systematic, race wise characterization of G. arboreum germplasm, it  has not been explored fully. During the present study, 100 polymorphic SSR loci were  used to genotype 95 accessions belonging to 6 races of G. arboreum producing 246 polymorphic alleles; mean number of effective alleles was 1.505. AMOVA showed 14 % of molecular variance among population groups, 34 % among individuals and remaining 52 % within individuals. UPGMA dendrogram, based on Nei’s genetic distance, distributed the six populations in two major clusters of 3 populations each; race ‘bengalense’ was found more close to ‘cernuum’ than the others. The clustering of 95 genotypes by UPGMA tree generation as well as PCoA analysis clustered ‘bengalense’ genotypes into one group along with some genotypes of ‘cernuum’, while rest of the genotypes made separate clusters. Outcomes of this research should be helpful in identifying the genotypes for their further utilization in hybridization program to obtain high level of germplasm diversity. © 2015, Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society.

Mukherjee A.K.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Mukherjee A.K.,Central Institute of Cotton Research | Carp M.-J.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Zuchman R.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2010

We have studied the proteome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana infected with a necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Alternaria brassicicola. The Arabidopsis-A. brassicicola host-pathogen pair is being developed as a model genetic system for incompatible plant-fungal interactions, in which the spread of disease is limited by plant defense responses. After confirming that a defense response was induced at the transcriptional level, we identified proteins whose abundance on 2-DE gels increased or decreased in infected leaves. At least 11 protein spots showed reproducible differences in abundance, increasing or decreasing during the progress of the infection. The pathogenesis-related protein PR4, a glycosyl hydrolase, and the antifungal protein osmotin are strongly up-regulated. Two members of the Arabidopsis glutathione S-transferase (GST) family increased in abundance in infected leaves. The spots in which these GST proteins were identified contain additional members of the GST family. Representation of GST family members in several protein spots migrating at similar molecular weight suggests post-translational modifications. The signature of GST regulation may be specific for the type of plant-pathogen interaction. The proteomic view of the defense response to A. brassicicola can be compared with other types of plant-pathogen interactions, and to leaf senescence, identifying unique regulatory patterns. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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