ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture

Chennai, India

ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture

Chennai, India
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Mir I.N.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Sahu N.P.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Pal A.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Makesh M.,ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture
Aquaculture | Year: 2017

An experiment of 60 days was conducted to study the immunomodulatory response and growth performance of Labeo rohita fingerlings fed with fucoidan rich seaweed extract (FRSE) and methionine. Four hundred and twenty fingerlings were randomly distributed into seven different experimental groups in triplicates following completely randomised design (CRD). Fishes were fed to satiation with purified diets containing either 0% FRSE with 0.3% methionine (control), 0% FRSE with low dose (0.9%) methionine (T1), 0% FRSE with high dose (1.5%) methionine (T2), 1% FRSE with 0.3% methionine (T3), 2% FRSE with 0.3% methionine (T4), 1% FRSE with high dose methionine (T5) or 2% FRSE with low dose methionine (T6) in the feed. There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of dietary fucoidan and methionine on the weight gain %, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) with highest weight gain % observed in the T6 group. At the end of the experimental trial fishes were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and the highest relative survival percentage was recorded in the T6 group, which was not significantly different from T4 group (P > 0.05). Immunological parameters: respiratory burst activity, myeloperoxidase activity, lysozyme activity, total immunoglobulin, phagocytic activity and total leukocyte count (TLC) were increased with the 2% level of dietary FRSE along with low dose methionine, whereas serum albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio and blood glucose level showed a decreasing trend (P < 0.05). These results suggest the synergistic effect of FRSE and methionine for growth and immunity in contrast to the only immune boosting capacity of fucoidan. Thus, 2% FRSE along with low dose methionine can act as immunostimulant and growth promoter in the diets of L. rohita fingerlings. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Celik Altunoglu Y.,Kastamonu University | Bilen S.,Kastamonu University | Ulu F.,Kastamonu University | Biswas G.,ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2017

The immune stimulating effects of the methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated. Variable concentrations of black cumin methanolic extract [0 (Control), 0.1 and 0.5 g kg−1 of feed] were individually added to the basal diet and rainbow trout was fed for 30 days to assess the innate immune responses and growth performance. Feed conversion ratio significantly decreased in the group fed with 0.5 g kg−1 black cumin extract. Respiratory burst activity was observed to be the highest in the 0.5 g kg−1 black cumin extract fed group. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly increased in fish of experimental groups compared to control (P < 0.05). TGF-β gene expression increased in black cumin 0.5 g kg−1 treated group. IL-1β and TGF-β gene expressions decreased in black cumin 0.1 g kg−1 administered group. Expression of IL-12 gene diminished in both the experimental groups. There was no significant difference in survival rates between black cumin extract treated fish groups and control (P > 0.05) after challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicate that the methanolic extract of black cumin is a stimulator of some innate humoral immune responses, but it is ineffective for cytokine-related gene trancriptions in rainbow trout. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

PubMed | CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Pacific Biosciences, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences and 10 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS genetics | Year: 2016

We report here the ~670 Mb genome assembly of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), a tropical marine teleost. We used long-read sequencing augmented by transcriptomics, optical and genetic mapping along with shared synteny from closely related fish species to derive a chromosome-level assembly with a contig N50 size over 1 Mb and scaffold N50 size over 25 Mb that span ~90% of the genome. The population structure of L. calcarifer species complex was analyzed by re-sequencing 61 individuals representing various regions across the species native range. SNP analyses identified high levels of genetic diversity and confirmed earlier indications of a population stratification comprising three clades with signs of admixture apparent in the South-East Asian population. The quality of the Asian seabass genome assembly far exceeds that of any other fish species, and will serve as a new standard for fish genomics.

PubMed | ICAR Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, ICAR Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, ICAR Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2016

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimers disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.

PubMed | ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture and ICAR Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research
Type: | Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology | Year: 2016

We herein report the protective role of pyridoxine in enhancing thermal tolerance of Milkfish Chanos chanos reared under endosulfan-induced stress. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were prepared with graded levels of pyridoxine (0, 50, 75 and 100mg/kg). Two hundred and twenty five fishes were randomly distributed into four treatment groups in triplicate, reared under endosulfan-treated water, which were fed with pyridoxine supplemented diet, while the negative control group was reared without endosulfan-treatment and control fed. The concentration of endosulfan in treated water was maintained at a level of 1/40th of LC50 i.e. 0.52g/L. Dietary pyridoxine supplementation had significant (p<0.01) effect on temperature tolerance viz. CTmax (Critical temperature maxima), LTmax (Lethal temperature maxima), CTmin (Critical temperature minima) and LTmin (Lethal temperature minima) of milkfish. The positive correlation was observed between CT max and LTmax (Y=-1.54+15.6x, R(2), 0.943) as well as CTmin and LTmin (Y=-1.44+1.021x, R(2), 0.941). At the end of the thermal tolerance study, antioxidative status and HSP 70 were significantly reduced in pyridoxine supplemented groups, whereas brain AChE was significantly (p<0.01) elevated compared to positive and negative control. It is concluded that CTmax, LTmax, CTmin and LTmin, antioxidative status, neurotransmitter enzyme and HSP 70 strengthened the enhancement of thermal tolerance of Milkfish.

PubMed | ICAR Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, ICAR Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, ICAR Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biological trace element research | Year: 2016

The micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) are required in small amounts but are essential for health, development, and growth. Micronutrient deficiencies, which affect over two billion people around the globe, are the leading cause of many ailments including mental retardation, preventable blindness, and death during childbirth. Fish is an important dietary source of micronutrients and plays important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, micronutrient composition of 35 food fishes (includes both finfishes and shellfishes) was investigated from varying aquatic habitats. Macrominerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se) were determined by either atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Phosphorus content was determined either spectrophotometrically or by ICP-AES. Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis showed that, in general, the marine fishes were rich in sodium and potassium; small indigenous fishes (SIFs) in calcium, iron, and manganese; coldwater fishes in selenium; and the brackishwater fishes in phosphorous. The marine fishes Sardinella longiceps and Epinephelus spp. and the SIFs were rich in all fat-soluble vitamins. All these recommendations were made according to the potential contribution (daily value %) of the species to the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Information on the micronutrients generated would enhance the utility of fish in both community and clinical nutrition.

Kumar N.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Ambasankar K.,ICAR central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture | Krishnani K.K.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Gupta S.K.,Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2016

This study investigated 96 h median lethal concentration of endosulfan (99%, pure α: β ratio of 7:3) by conducting static non-renewable acute toxicity bio-assay in Chanos chanos juvenile with average weight (110±5.65 g). Further, the effect of different definitive doses (18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5 and 22.5 μg/L) of endosulfan on metabolic, heamato-immunoligcal and histopathological response were probed. Anti-oxidative enzymes CAT, SOD and GST showed significant (p<0.01) increase of activity in the liver, gill and brain during exposure to endosulfan in a dose and time dependent manner. The brain AChE activity showed significant (p<0.01) inhibition from 18.5 to 22.5 μg/L exposure of endosulfan than the control group. LDH and MDH activity gradually increased with consequent increasing dose of endosulfan exposure in the liver, gill and brain. Similarly, ALT, AST and G6PDH activities in both liver and gill increased with consequent increases in the dose of endosulfan exposure. Immunological profile such as blood glucose and serum cortisol level significantly enhanced while respiratory burst activity declined with consequent increasing doses of endosulfan exposure. Histopathological alteration in the gill demonstrated curling of secondary lamellae, thickening of primary epithelium, shorting of secondary lamellae, epithelial hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellae, aneurism, and collapsed secondary lamellae due to dose dependent exposure of endosulfan. Liver histology illustrated cloudy swelling and necrosis with pyknotic nuclei to the moderate dose of endosulfan, whereas higher dose of endosulfan (21.5 μg/L) displayed severe necrosis of hepatic cells. Overall results clearly indicate that acute exposure of endosulfan led to pronounced deleterious alterations on biochemical, heamato-immunological, and histopathological responses of C. chanos juvenile. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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