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PubMed | CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Pacific Biosciences, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences and 10 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS genetics | Year: 2016

We report here the ~670 Mb genome assembly of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), a tropical marine teleost. We used long-read sequencing augmented by transcriptomics, optical and genetic mapping along with shared synteny from closely related fish species to derive a chromosome-level assembly with a contig N50 size over 1 Mb and scaffold N50 size over 25 Mb that span ~90% of the genome. The population structure of L. calcarifer species complex was analyzed by re-sequencing 61 individuals representing various regions across the species native range. SNP analyses identified high levels of genetic diversity and confirmed earlier indications of a population stratification comprising three clades with signs of admixture apparent in the South-East Asian population. The quality of the Asian seabass genome assembly far exceeds that of any other fish species, and will serve as a new standard for fish genomics.


PubMed | ICAR Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, ICAR Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, ICAR Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2016

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimers disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.


PubMed | ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture and ICAR Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research
Type: | Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology | Year: 2016

We herein report the protective role of pyridoxine in enhancing thermal tolerance of Milkfish Chanos chanos reared under endosulfan-induced stress. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were prepared with graded levels of pyridoxine (0, 50, 75 and 100mg/kg). Two hundred and twenty five fishes were randomly distributed into four treatment groups in triplicate, reared under endosulfan-treated water, which were fed with pyridoxine supplemented diet, while the negative control group was reared without endosulfan-treatment and control fed. The concentration of endosulfan in treated water was maintained at a level of 1/40th of LC50 i.e. 0.52g/L. Dietary pyridoxine supplementation had significant (p<0.01) effect on temperature tolerance viz. CTmax (Critical temperature maxima), LTmax (Lethal temperature maxima), CTmin (Critical temperature minima) and LTmin (Lethal temperature minima) of milkfish. The positive correlation was observed between CT max and LTmax (Y=-1.54+15.6x, R(2), 0.943) as well as CTmin and LTmin (Y=-1.44+1.021x, R(2), 0.941). At the end of the thermal tolerance study, antioxidative status and HSP 70 were significantly reduced in pyridoxine supplemented groups, whereas brain AChE was significantly (p<0.01) elevated compared to positive and negative control. It is concluded that CTmax, LTmax, CTmin and LTmin, antioxidative status, neurotransmitter enzyme and HSP 70 strengthened the enhancement of thermal tolerance of Milkfish.


PubMed | ICAR Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, ICAR Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, ICAR Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biological trace element research | Year: 2016

The micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) are required in small amounts but are essential for health, development, and growth. Micronutrient deficiencies, which affect over two billion people around the globe, are the leading cause of many ailments including mental retardation, preventable blindness, and death during childbirth. Fish is an important dietary source of micronutrients and plays important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, micronutrient composition of 35 food fishes (includes both finfishes and shellfishes) was investigated from varying aquatic habitats. Macrominerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se) were determined by either atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Phosphorus content was determined either spectrophotometrically or by ICP-AES. Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis showed that, in general, the marine fishes were rich in sodium and potassium; small indigenous fishes (SIFs) in calcium, iron, and manganese; coldwater fishes in selenium; and the brackishwater fishes in phosphorous. The marine fishes Sardinella longiceps and Epinephelus spp. and the SIFs were rich in all fat-soluble vitamins. All these recommendations were made according to the potential contribution (daily value %) of the species to the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Information on the micronutrients generated would enhance the utility of fish in both community and clinical nutrition.


Kumar N.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Ambasankar K.,ICAR central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture | Krishnani K.K.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Gupta S.K.,Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2016

This study investigated 96 h median lethal concentration of endosulfan (99%, pure α: β ratio of 7:3) by conducting static non-renewable acute toxicity bio-assay in Chanos chanos juvenile with average weight (110±5.65 g). Further, the effect of different definitive doses (18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5 and 22.5 μg/L) of endosulfan on metabolic, heamato-immunoligcal and histopathological response were probed. Anti-oxidative enzymes CAT, SOD and GST showed significant (p<0.01) increase of activity in the liver, gill and brain during exposure to endosulfan in a dose and time dependent manner. The brain AChE activity showed significant (p<0.01) inhibition from 18.5 to 22.5 μg/L exposure of endosulfan than the control group. LDH and MDH activity gradually increased with consequent increasing dose of endosulfan exposure in the liver, gill and brain. Similarly, ALT, AST and G6PDH activities in both liver and gill increased with consequent increases in the dose of endosulfan exposure. Immunological profile such as blood glucose and serum cortisol level significantly enhanced while respiratory burst activity declined with consequent increasing doses of endosulfan exposure. Histopathological alteration in the gill demonstrated curling of secondary lamellae, thickening of primary epithelium, shorting of secondary lamellae, epithelial hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellae, aneurism, and collapsed secondary lamellae due to dose dependent exposure of endosulfan. Liver histology illustrated cloudy swelling and necrosis with pyknotic nuclei to the moderate dose of endosulfan, whereas higher dose of endosulfan (21.5 μg/L) displayed severe necrosis of hepatic cells. Overall results clearly indicate that acute exposure of endosulfan led to pronounced deleterious alterations on biochemical, heamato-immunological, and histopathological responses of C. chanos juvenile. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Kumar S.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Sathish Kumar T.,ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture | Vidya R.,ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture | Pandey P.K.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education
Aquaculture International | Year: 2016

Argulus, an obligate macroectoparasite, infests a wide range of fishes causing severe economic loss to aquaculture industry. The application of chemotherapeutants is the most common approach to combat argulosis. But it is very expensive and has a range of negative impacts on the host and environment. An alternative to the extensive use of chemotherapeutics is to restrict Argulus infestation by adopting a range of biosecurity and quarantine measures. However, before adopting these measures it is essential to adequately understand the complex interaction among the host, parasite and environment, in order to identify key factors affecting parasite dynamics and to formulate a possible management strategy. Epidemiology provides key tools to advance our understanding of diseases and allows bringing convergence in controlling the disease. Compared to terrestrial diseases, relatively few epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate aquatic animal diseases. For Argulus spp., the complex real-world dynamics of transmission, reproduction and the host specificity and the role of these parasites as a vector for various pathogens are very complex to develop an effective epidemiological framework. This review principally focuses on the application of epidemiological concepts, providing insights about the sampling frame, commenting upon the use of simple deterministic susceptible-infected-removed models and examines the determinants of transmission and spread of argulosis. Further, this paper describes the risk factors associated with Argulus infestation and the importance of risk analysis in intervention against its epizootics. Overall, this review is intended to highlight the need for development of a more extensive epidemiological approach to combat argulosis in aquaculture. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Mandal B.,ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture | Kumar R.,Indian Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture | Jayasankar P.,Indian Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2016

The climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, is an air-breathing fish having great consumer preference as a food fish and is considered a prime candidate species for aquaculture. Spawning success is an important issue while using hormones for captive induced breeding. In the first experiment, a trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of a synthetic Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone analog (sGnRHa) on the spawning success of climbing perch. Female fish were administered six different doses each with a single intramuscular injection of sGnRHa hormone at 0.002 (TOD1), 0.005 (TOD2), 0.01 (TOD3), 0.015 (TOD4), 0.02 (TOD5), 0.03 (TOD6) μg/g body weight. Similarly, males were administered half of the hormone dose of females in all the respective treatment groups. The greatest (P < 0.05) relative fecundity (715.13 ± 15.0 eggs/g female body weight) and fertilization percentage rates (93.1 ± 8.0%) occurred when female fish were treated at the 0.015 μg/g body weight dose. There was a reduction in relative fecundity and hatching rate in female fish injected with the largest dose (1.5 μL/g body weight) of sGnRHa. A second experiment was conducted to assess the effect of a different male-female ratio on optimum spawning success in climbing perch. For this study a different female to male ratio (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) and male to female ratio (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) were used. There were a greater (P < 0.05) relative fecundity (886.62 ± 17.9 eggs/g female body weight), fertilization (98 ± 6.7%) and hatching (99 ± 5.4%) rates with the female to male ratio of 1:2. This indicated that the hormone dose of 0.015 μg/g body weight and a female-male ratio of 1:2 are optimal for enhanced spawning success in the climbing perch. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Kumar N.,ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Ambasankar K.,ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture | Krishnani K.K.,ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Bhushan S.,Central Institute of Fisheries Education | Minhas P.S.,ICAR National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management
Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2016

The amelioration effect of water-soluble vitamin pyridoxine against stress was evaluated in milkfish, Chanos chanos exposed to endosulfan. Two hundred and twenty-five fish were distributed randomly into five treatments, each with three replicates. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets with graded levels of pyridoxine feed were as follows: normal water and fed with control diet (En0/PY0); endosulfan-treated water and fed with control diet (En/PY0); and endosulfan-treated water and fed with 50 (En/PY 50 mg/kg), 75 (En/PY 75 mg/kg) and 100 mg/kg (En/PY 100 mg/kg) pyridoxine-supplemented feed. The endosulfan in treated water was maintained at a level of 1/40th of LC50 (0.52 ppb). The effect of dietary pyridoxine supplementation was studied in terms of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase), stress markers [heat-shock protein 70, caspase-3, cortisol, acetylcholine esterase (AChE), blood glucose], immunohaematological parameters (total protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio, nitroblue tetrazolium, RBC, WBC, Hb), gill histopathology and a subsequent challenge study with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The antioxidative enzymes, stress markers, albumin and A/G ratio were significantly (p < 0.01) elevated, brain AChE and immunohaematological parameters were significantly (p < 0.01) decreased, and chromosome aberration and gill histopathology were also altered due to endosulfan exposure. The relative survival % was reduced due to the combined effect of endosulfan stress and bacterial challenge. Fish fed the diet supplemented with pyridoxine at 75 and 100 mg/kg was found to restore the studied parameter towards normal compared with control and indicated protection against endosulfan-induced stress significantly (p < 0.01). Results obtained in the present study indicate that the supplementation of 75 and 100 mg/kg of pyridoxine in the diet has a definitive role in the mitigation of the endosulfan-induced stress in milkfish, C. chanos fingerlings. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society)

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