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Panigrahi A.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Panigrahi A.,Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture | Viswanath K.,Bodo University College | Satoh S.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2011

Whether it is better to use viable or non-viable probionts in aquaculture is still a matter of debate. In this study, the molecular immunomodulation in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss induced by viable or killed forms of the probiont Lactobacillus rhamnosus JCM 1136 was investigated. Three forms of this probiont: (1) heat-killed (HK), (2) live spray (LI) and (3) freeze-dried (FD) were incorporated into a basal (control) diet for rainbow trout O. mykiss. The LI and FD diets are referred to as viable diets. A rearing trial, in triplicate, was conducted for 30 days, with the control and probiotic diets as treatments. The cytokine genes such as the tumour necrosis factor (TNF), transforming growth factor (TGF-β), interferon (IFN) and immune gene Immunoglobulin (Ig) found in tissues from the kidney and spleen were assessed for their expression pattern by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The tested immune genes were up-regulated in the treatment groups, sometimes even in many folds like in the case of the Ig gene. The TNF gene was found to be highly (P<0.05) up-regulated (5000-fold) in groups fed both viable forms (LI, FD). With regard to the TGF-β gene, the spleen of the HK and FD groups showed significant up-regulation of 20- and 30-folds respectively. The IFN gene was up-regulated (P<0.05) in all treatments, but more in the viable diet treatments. Kidney and spleen tissues showed similar expression patterns, i.e. all of these genes were up-regulated more with the viable diets that with the control, and in most cases, the viable diets induced a higher expression of the immune genes than the HK diet. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Banu R.,National Dairy Research Institute | Singh A.,National Dairy Research Institute | Malhotra R.,National Dairy Research Institute | Gowane G.,National Dairy Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

The first lactation weekly test day milk yield (WTDMY) records (57233) and monthly test day milk yield (MTDMY) records (11970) spread over a period of 23 years (1984-2006) sired by 82 bulls of Karan Fries cattle were used to develop the best lactation curve model. The lactation curve parameters of Quadratic cum log model (QCLM), Gamma function (GF), Cobby Le Du model (CLDM), Polynomial regression function (PRF) and Multiphasic logistic function (MLF) were estimated. The average weekly test day milk yield was predicted with high degree of accuracy (R2 > 85%) by all the models with the maximum accuracy (R2 = 99.50%) obtained by polynomial regression function (PRF) and the least fit (R2 = 87.90%) was obtained by Gamma function (GF). However Quadratic cum log model (R2 = 99.20%) was almost equal to polynomial regression function and was better than Cobby Le Du model (R 2 = 92.80%). The average root mean square error (RMSE) was found to be minimum with PRF (0.0121 Kg) followed by MLF (Triphasic). Thus the best fit model was polynomial regression function, which was better than other functions for prediction of first lactation WTDMY. The average monthly test day milk yield was predicted with high degree of accuracy (R2 > 75%) by all the models with the maximum accuracy (R2 > 99.41%) obtained by polynomial regression function (PRF) and the least fit was obtained with gamma function (R2 = 79.05%). However, quadratic-cum-log model (R 2 = 99.28%) was almost equal to polynomial regression function and was better than CLDM (R2 = 89.50%). The average root mean square error (RMSE) was found to be minimum with PRF (0.0061 kg) followed by QCLM (0.0620). Thus the best fit model was polynomial regression function for prediction of both weekly and monthly test day milk yield of first lactation in Karan Fries cows.


Panigrahi A.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Panigrahi A.,Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture | Kiron V.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Satoh S.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Watanabe T.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

This paper reports the effect of feeding probiotic diets on blood profiles in rainbow trout. Two experiments were performed: in the first, fish of average weight 75 g were offered either a commercial feed or the same incorporated with 109 CFU g-1 of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus for 30 days; in the second study performed for a similar duration, fish of average weight 126 g were offered formulated diets that either contained the same bacteria in heat-killed or freeze-dried form (nearly 1011 CFU g-1), or the basal diet without the bacteria. Blood samples were collected at different times after commencement of probiotic feeding to determine the total cholesterol, triglyceride contents, the plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, plasma protein and hematocrit value. The plasma cholesterol significantly increased upon probiotic feeding in the first experiment. A significant elevation (P < 0. 05) of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride and alkaline phosphatase activity level was found in the freeze-dried probiotic fed groups at 20 and 30 days postfeeding. This was concomitant with the increased plasma protein and hematocrit values in FD group at 20 and 30 days. Likewise, the heat-killed probiotic fed group registered significantly high values of triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase activity, and plasma protein compared to the control diet fed groups after 20 days of feeding. Thus, alterations in the blood profiles could serve as supplementary information when examining the benefits of probiotics for fish. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Ganeshkumar M.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Sastry T.P.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Sathish Kumar M.,Anna University | Dinesh M.G.,Thanthai Hansroever College | And 2 more authors.
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2012

The objective of this study is to synthesize green chemistry based gold nanoparticles by sun light irradiation method. The prepared gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were modified using folic acid and then coupled with 6-mercaptopurine. These modified nanoparticles were used as a tool for targeted drug delivery to treat laryngeal cancer. In the present study, novel bionanocomposites containing nutrient agar coated gold nano particles (N-AuNPs) coupled with 6-mercaptopurine (drug) (N-AuNPs-Mp), folic acid (ligand) (N-AuNPs-Mp-Fa) and rhodamine (dye) (N-AuNPs-Rd), a fluorescent agent, were prepared and characterized by IR, UV, TEM, Particle size analysis and in vitro stability. The toxicity and fluorescence of N-Au was studied using zebrafish embryo model. The in vitro cytotoxicity of free Mp, N-Au-Mp and N-Au-Mp-Fa against HEp-2 cells was compared and found that the amount of Mp required to achieve 50% of growth of inhibition (IC 50) was much lower in N-Au-Mp-Fa than in free Mp and N-Au-Mp. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Meena Kumari R.,Sathyabama University | Muthumani S.,Sathyabama University | Shanthi B.,Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2015

This study has been conducted with the objective of analysing the impact of marketing mix strategy on the marketing efficiency in the aquaculture and other products produced by self-help groups (SHGs). It has been conducted to provide a better understanding of marketing by self-help groups (SHGs). A structured questionnaire was distributed among 288 members of different SHGs to obtain the primary data. Secondary data was collected from journals, books and websites. The acquired data is analysed through Chi square test. This analysis revealed that the four marketing mix elements have positive relation with the market efficiency of the SHGs. In other words, if any one of the element is improved or increased it shows its impact on sales of the product. © Research India Publications.

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