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Kotwaliwale N.,Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering Nabibagh | Singh K.,Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering Nabibagh | Kalne A.,Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering Nabibagh | Jha S.N.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

A number of non-destructive methods for internal quality evaluation have been studied by different researchers over the past eight decades. X-ray and computed tomography imaging techniques are few of them which are gaining popularity now days in various fields of agriculture and food quality evaluation. These techniques, so far predominantly used in medical applications, have also been explored for internal quality inspection of various agricultural products non-destructively, when quality features are not visible on the surface of the products. Though, safety of operators and time required for tests are of concern, the non-destructive nature of these techniques has great potential for wide applications on agricultural produce. This paper presents insight of X-ray based non-destructive techniques such as X-ray imaging and Computed Tomography (CT). The concepts, properties, equipment and their parameters, systems and applications associated with the use of X-rays and CT for agricultural produce have been elaborated. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Singh A.,Barkatullah University | Singhai R.,Regional Institute of Education | Biswas A.K.,Indian Institute of Science | Dubey A.K.,Central institute of Agricultural Engineering Nabibagh
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2013

Biochar production from slow pyrolysis of biomass removes the net carbon dioxide in the atmosphere act as a potential carbon negative procedure and produce recalcitrant carbon suitable for sequestration in soil. Biochar has been prepared using mustard straw at different temperature 250°C to 500°C in a temperature-controlled oven. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on biochar yield was investigated. The pyrolysis temperature used ranged from 250°C to 500°C. The pH and EC of the biochar was determined. Besides mass recovery, carbon content after each pyrolysis process was determined. The yield of biochar made from mustard stalks with particle size of 0.7-1.4 mm ranged from 66.3% to 30.5% and carbon content ranged from 51.9% to 70.5%. The value of pH and EC varies with increase in pyrolysis temperature. Results suggest that biochar pyrolyzed at high temperature may possess a higher carbon sequestration potential when applied to the soil compared to that obtained at low temperature.

Singh D.,Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering Nabibagh | Saha K.P.,Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering Nabibagh | Singh S.P.,Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering Nabibagh
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2012

A study was conducted to ascertain the extent of use of different sources of information for product identification, improvement of skill and production techniques for agricultural implements, the expectations of manufacturers and the constraints faced and the adoption of improved manufacturing practices. Information was collected on a sample of 118 manufacturers from 18 districts of the state of Madhya Pradesh in Central India. The study revealed that the large category manufacturers with the largest establishment and highest turnover of more than Rs. 4 million were in a advantageous position with easy access to information, strong linkages with government agencies, initiatives taken for improvement of skills and production technologies and higher investment capability. This enabled them to obtain the lion's share of the market as compared to small and medium firms manufacturing agricultural implements.

Giri S.K.,Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering Nabibagh | Mangaraj S.,Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering Nabibagh
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Summary: The effects of membrane pore size and operating pressure on filtration flux, membrane fouling and solute rejections of soymilk during ultrafiltration were studied. Soymilk was concentrated from an initial level of 6.5% solid content to 20% solid content using ultrafiltration membranes. Hollow fibre cross-flow type cartridges having molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) as 1, 10 and 30 kDa were used in the experiments. Filtration data were satisfactorily fitted to De La Garza and Boulton's exponential model to find the exponential fouling coefficient (k) and the membrane resistance (Rm). The permeate fluxes obtained in 10 and 30-kDa MWCO membranes were found to be approximately four times higher than that of 1-kDa MWCO membrane, at transmembrane pressure between 100 and 240 kPa. The average flux obtained was 0.7, 3.15 and 2.7 L m-2-h for 1, 10 and 30-kDa MWCO membranes, respectively. The Rm value of membranes was found to decrease as the MWCO of membranes increased and transmembrane pressure decreased. The total solid content of permeates obtained by these membranes was between 0.45% and 1.4%. Membrane-concentrated soymilk was found to have lighter colour and almost half the value of viscosity compared with evaporated milk. © 2013 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

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