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Madaras M.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute | Koubova M.,Czech Geological Survey | Smatanova M.,Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2014

In the Czech Republic, negative potassium (K) budget in agricultural soils is caused by non-fertilization by K and by a decline of manure application. We investigated soil available, fixed (acid-extractable, Kfix) and structural K pools in the field trial with graduated K application rate, established in 1972 at 8 sites of different climate and soils. The content of K-bearing minerals was evaluated on semi-quantitative scale by XRD diffraction. K-feldspars were a dominant source of structural K. Total soil K consisted of 1.7-7.1% of fixed K, which was in a positive relation to mixed-layer phyllosilicates. Differences in available K in treatments with K budget lower than -30 kg K/ha/year were small compared to those of fixed K. In control treatments, calculated average depletion of available K was-18 kg K/ha/year and the average depletion of fixed K was -12 kg K/ha/year; however at sites of higher altitude fixed K depletion prevailed. Fixed K accounted for 6-31% of the K budget. In negative K budget, monitoring of Kfix is advisable to avoid fertility loss of soil with low K supplying capacity.


Dankova R.,Mendel University in Brno | Jarosova A.,Mendel University in Brno | Polakova S.,Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2016

Our study monitored two phthalic acid esters in agricultural soils in the Czech Republic: di2ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The concentration levels were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The samples were extracted using an acetone-hexane (1:1) mixture. Phthalate content monitoring was performed in 12 administrative regions of the Czech Republic. Soil was sampled from the upper soil horizon along the polyline, with samples taken from the following cultures: arable land, permanent grassland, a hop field, and unfarmed land. The phthalic acid ester concentrations found ranged from 0.01 to 2.48 mg per kg of DM wt for dibutyl phthalate and from 0.05 to 1.43 mg per kg of DM wt for di2ethylhexyl phthalate. The total concentration of both phthalates ranged from 0.21 to 3.47 mg per kg of DM wt. © 2016, Pol. J. Environ. Stud. All rights reserved.


Jakesova H.,Red Clover and Grass Breeding Hladke Zivotice | Repkova J.,Masaryk University | Hampel D.,Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture | Cechova L.,Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture | Hofbauer J.,Agricultural Research Troubsko
Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2011

Trifolium pratense L. is a high-yielding and high-quality fodder crop. However, it shows low persistence, which may be overcome by hybridisation with species that produce rhizomes. Hybrids between T. pratense L. and T. medium L. were previously obtained by embryo rescue. The aim of this study was to evaluate 16 characteristics (stem weight, stem length, internode number, length/width ratio of a central leaflet of the trifoliate leaf on the 4th internode, stem thickness on the 4th internode, average leaf area of the trifoliate leaf, weight of dry plant, plant length, stem and head number per plant, head number per stem, seed weight per plant, seed weight per head and dry matter per stem) in the hybrid plants derived from F1 hybrids and in both parental genotypes. The characteristics were evaluated in 500, 745 and 112 hybrid plants in the years 2006, 2008 and 2009, respectively. The significance of the morphological differences was determined by the general linear model and generalised linear model with Poisson distribution with two factors, genotype and year. Some of the examined traits were intermediate in the hybrids. There were significant differences between the hybrids and T. pratense in nearly all the analysed characteristics, except for the following ones: length/width ratio of a central leaflet of the trifoliate leaf on the 4th internode under the top head, plant weight and head number per plant. The stem number per plant was significantly higher in the hybrids compared to both parental species, which could have a positive impact on the yield. Short rhizomes were observed in the hybrids after the harvest of plants in the second harvest year. The stability of this trait and its impact on the perenniality of the hybrids will be investigated in the next years.


Zachariasova M.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Dzuman Z.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Veprikova Z.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Hajkova K.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | And 6 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites produced by microscopic filamentous fungi, are ubiquitous contaminants of crop plants and forage representing the main components of compound feeds. More than 300 mycotoxins are known today, but only five of them (aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are regulated by EU legislation for animal feed. The current study reflects the requirements of the European Food Safety Authority for gathering the data allowing reliable quantitative exposure assessments. This is the first report combining the data for the occurrence of 56 mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Claviceps fungi species in 18 classes of non-fermented or fermented feedingstuffs, feedingstuff supplements, and complex compound feeds (altogether 343 samples collected between 2008 and 2012). Samples were extracted by the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Rugged and Safe) procedure. For separation and target mycotoxins detection, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was employed. In most of the investigated feedingstuff commodities, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, enniatins, beauvericin, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, roquefortine C and mycophenolic acid were quantified, in some cases at concentrations up to thousands of μg/kg, depending on the composition of the particular sample. The broadest spectrum of detected mycotoxins, as well as the highest concentrations, was quantified in dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS). Based on the performed analyses, the dietary intake of particular mycotoxins was estimated considering the feedingstuffs consumption by the respective farm animal. It was found that the most significant exposure of animals occurred after the consumption of 'basic' feedings, i.e. maize silage and complex compound feeds for dairy cattle (average dietary intake for the most important mycotoxins were 2.3-5.4. μg/kg of BW for nivalenol, 9.2-10.8. μg/kg of BW for deoxynivalenol, 1-1.4. μg/kg of BW for FUS-X, 0.2-0.4. μg/kg of BW for zearalenone, 0.03-1.8 for enniatins, and 0.5-5.4. μg/kg of BW for mycophenolic acid), complex compound feeds for pigs (in average 12. μg/kg of BW for deoxynivalenol, 0.8. μg/kg of BW for zearalenone, 0.3. μg/kg of BW for fumonisin B1, and 1.8-9.2. μg/kg of BW for enniatins), and complex compound feeds for chickens and laying hens (18.2. μg/kg of BW for deoxynivalenol, 1.1. μg/kg of BW for HT-2 toxin, 0.1. μg/kg of BW for zearalenone, and 0.4-3.9. μg/kg of BW for enniatins). Nevertheless, quite high animal exposure to mycotoxins was calculated also for maize-based DDGS usually used as a supplementary feed. In spite of a lower dosage of these feedingstuff supplements, relatively high mycotoxins concentrations determined here caused the increased dietary intake. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | AQUATEST Inc., University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Masaryk University and Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

Chlorotriazine herbicides (CTs) are widely used pest control chemicals. In contrast to groundwater contamination, little attention has been given to the circumstances of residue formation of parent compounds and transformation products in soils. Seventy-five cultivated floodplain topsoils in the Czech Republic were sampled in early spring of 2015, corresponding to a minimum of six months (current-use terbuthylazine, TBA) and a up to a decade (banned atrazine, AT and simazine, SIM) after the last herbicide application. Soil residues of parent compounds and nine transformation products were quantified via multiple residue analysis using liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry of acetonitrile partitioning extracts (QuEChERS). Using principal component analysis (PCA), their relation to soil chemistry, crops and environmental parameters was determined. Of the parent compounds, only TBA was present in more than one sample. In contrast, at least one CT transformation product, particularly hydroxylated CTs, was detected in 89% of the sites, or 54% for banned triazines. Deethylated and bi-dealkylated SIM or AT residues were not detectable. PCA suggests the formation and/or retention of CT hydroxy-metabolite residues to be related to low soil pH, and a direct relation between TBA and soil organic carbon, and between deethyl-TBA and clay or Ca contents, respectively, the latter pointing towards distinct sorption mechanisms. The low historic application of simazine contrasted by the high abundance of its residues, and the co-occurrence with AT residues suggests the post-ban application of AT and SIM banned triazines as a permitted impurity of TBA formulations as a recent, secondary source. The present data indicate that topsoils do not contain abundant extractable residues of banned parent chlorotriazines, and are thus likely not the current source for related ground- and surface water contamination. In contrast, topsoils might pose a long-term source of TBA and CT transformation products for ground and surface water contamination.


PubMed | Masaryk University and Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of pharmaceutics | Year: 2016

Freezing and lyophilization are often used for stabilization of biomolecules; however, this sometimes results in partial degradation and loss of biological function in these molecules. In this study we examined the effect of freezing-induced acidity changes on denaturation of the model enzyme haloalkane dehalogenase under various experimental conditions. The effective local pH of frozen solutions is shown to be the key causal factor in protein stability. To preserve the activity of frozen-thawed enzymes, acidity changes were prevented by the addition of an ionic cryoprotectant, a compound which counteracts pH changes during freezing due to selective incorporation of its ions into the ice. This approach resulted in complete recovery of enzyme activity after multiple freeze-thaw cycles. We propose the utilization of ionic cryoprotectants as a new and effective cryopreservation method in research laboratories as well as in industrial processes.


Bolechova M.,Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture | Bolechova M.,Brno University of Technology | Caslavsky J.,Brno University of Technology | Pospichalova M.,Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture | Kosubova P.,Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Alkaloids known as secondary metabolites are grouped by typical structural characteristics into large families such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) comprising more than 350 individual heterocyclic compounds. The PAs present a serious health risk to human and livestock; hence there is a need for methods that allow these dangerous plant toxins to be determined. In this study, a fast, reliable and sensitive approach is proposed to identify and quantify PAs in feed samples. PAs including monocrotaline, senkirkine, senecionine, seneciphylline and retrorsine were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Sample preparation was based on a modified QuEChERS approach. The mean recovery, precision, matrix effects and limits of quantification were assessed for three matrices within the method validation. The presented method was used to inspect 41 various feed samples, where the presence of PAs was expected. Roughages and feed for rabbits contained the highest levels of PAs, in general. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bolechova M.,Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture | Benesova K.,Research Institute of Brewing and Malting | Belakova S.,Research Institute of Brewing and Malting | Caslavsky J.,Brno University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2015

In this study, an analytical method for the determination of 17 mycotoxins was developed and validated: common (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, fumonisins B1 and B2, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxin) and "emerging" toxins (enniatins A, A1, B, and B1, and beauvericin) were detected using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A modified QuEChERS method was used for extraction. The method was applied to a total set of 52 barley and malt samples. All samples were contaminated with at least one of mycotoxins. None of the investigated samples contained any of four aflatoxins nor ochratoxin A. Fumonisin B1 occurred only in one sample, Fumonisin B2 and zearalenone were found in two barley samples. Enniatins were detected in all samples. The values did not exceed the maximum allowable limit for the selected mycotoxins in unprocessed or processed cereals set by the European Union. © 2014 .


Heroldova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Cizmar D.,Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture | Tkadlec E.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Tkadlec E.,Palacky University
Crop Protection | Year: 2010

Prediction of impact by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis of rodent diet preferences was evaluated in four dominant field rodents in Moravia farmland (Czech Republic). These include the common vole (Microtus arvalis), pygmy field mouse (Apodemus uralensis), wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), and black-striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius). Using fecal samples, this method predicts the proportions of food components consumed, based on a calibration equation developed through feeding tests in the laboratory. We used the wood mouse as a model species for NIRS device calibration. The two types of monofood feces collected from mice that were fed with either barley or wheat grain were mixed to form a series of increasing proportions of wheat feces subsequently measured by NIRS. Because of a good fit, the calibration equation was then applied to other mice, whereas a separate calibration equation had to be developed for the common vole. The percentage diet preferences were determined by comparing feces from preference choice tests with the calibration equation. Whereas all mice preferred wheat to barley, the common vole showed no preference for either crop. Thus proportion of wheat preference by all Apodemus sp. predict stronger impact of these in wheat fields in ripe stage than in barley one. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Sklenickova A.,Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture | Lyckova B.,VSB - Technical University of Ostrava
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2013

The article describes an experimental verification of the efficiency of vermicompost. This is examined using a biological test, namely with white mustard plants. Apart from the vegetative observation of plants' growth, the tests also compare the contents of basic and hazardous elements in the monitored types of vermicomposts. In addition, evaluated are the compositions of plants grown in soils enriched with the individual vermicomposts. © SGEM2013 All Rights Reserved by the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM.

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