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Gupta V.K.,National University of Ireland | Misra A.K.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection

Wilt is a serious disease of guava crop in India. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii and F. solani have been reported as the main causative agents of this disease. Most recently a survey on guava plants affected with wilt disease was conducted in severely affected areas of India, and two new species of Fusarium viz. Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium chlamydosporum were found to be associated with this disease. However, pathogenecity of Fusarium chlamydosporum was successfully conducted in the field trials. The culture of F. chlamydosporum was processed for DNA sequencing and DNA sequence was submitted to NCBI with GenBank accession no. HM102506. The submitted DNA sequence of F. chlamydosporum was compared for the genetic position in Fusarium spp. evolutionary phylogenic tree. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Gutam S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gutam S.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Communications in Biometry and Crop Science

In an experiment with new hexaploid wheat lines existing lines and other tetraploids was conducted in the Rabi (post-rainy) 2001 and 2002 dry seasons. The data on yield and yield components shows that the tetraploids had more spikes plant -1 but fewer seeds spike -1 and a lower seed weight spike -1. The most important yield component the 1000-grain yield was shown by the hexaploids. The new hexaploid lines DL-1266-1 and DL-1266-2 had the maximum grain growth rate at 5 - 15 days after anthesis (DAA). Line DL-1266-2 had the highest grain growth rate 0.09 g g -1 day -1. Photosynthetic rate values showed that the hexaploids had a higher rate than the tetraploids. Generally, at 7 and 15 DAA, the photosynthetic rate was higher compared to 25 DAA and 35 DAA. It appears that in the high yielding hexaploids (DL-1266-1 & DL-1266-2) a better photosynthetic rate and better mobilization of photosynthates during grain filling contributes to their higher yield. © CBCS 2011. Source

Chaudhury R.,Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit | Malik S.K.,Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit | Rajan S.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture

An improved method for pollen collection from freshly dehiscing anthers of mango (Mangifera indica L.) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) using the organic solvent cyclohexane has been devised. Using this method pollen quantity sufficient for large scale pollinations could be collected and stored for future use. Transport of pollen in viable conditions over long distances, from site of collection (field genebank) to cryolab was successfully devised for both these fruit species. Cryopreservation was successfully applied to achieve long-term pollen storage over periods of up to four years. Pollen viability was tested using in vitro germination, the fluorochromatic reaction (FCR) method and by fruit set following field pollination. On retesting, four year cryostored pollen of different mango and litchi varieties showed high percentage viability as good as fresh control pollens. Pollens of more than 180 cultivars of mango and 19 cultivars of litchi have been stored in the cryogenebank using the technology developed, thus facilitating breeding programmes over the long-term. Source

Bhattacherjee A.K.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Imidacloprid was sprayed on mango cv. Dashehari at 0.3 mL L-1 of water during pre-bloom stage with 6-8 cm panicle size (first week of March) to control hopper and carbosulfan was sprayed at 2.0 mL L-1 of water in the trees of mango hybrid (H-1000) during fruit development stage (first week of May) to control leaf webber. Residues of both the insecticides were analysed in peel, pulp and fruit at different stages of fruit development and maturity. The initial residues of imidacloprid, after 30 days of spraying, were 1.21, 0.56 and 1.77 mg kg-1 in peel, pulp and whole fruit, respectively. The residues persisted in peel for 60 days and in pulp for 50 days and dissipated with a half-life of 38 days. Mature Dashehari fruits at harvest (after 85 days of spraying) were free from imidacloprid residues. Carbosulfan in mango peel dissipated from 5.30 mg kg-1 (after 1 h of spraying) to 0.05 mg kg-1 at the time of harvest (after 45 days of spraying). Carbosulfan residue in pulp was very low (0.08 mg kg-1) after 1 h of spraying, which increased gradually to 0.90 mg kg-1 after 10 days and finally came down to 0.04 mg kg-1 after 26 days of spraying. The insecticide residue was not detected in the pulp at the time of harvest. The residues persisted in pulp for 26 days and in peel for 45 days and degraded with a half-life of 7 days. The dissipation of both imidacloprid and carbosulfan followed first order rate kinetics in whole fruit (peel + pulp). Therefore, the safe pre-harvest intervals were suggested to be 55 days for imidacloprid and 46 days for carbosulfan before consumption of mango fruits after spraying of these insecticides. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Jyotshna,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Srivastava P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Killadi B.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Shanker K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Food Chemistry

Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390 nm, while lupeol at 610 nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) between of acidity and TSSC with mangiferin and lupeol in pulp and peel during storage were also observed. ©2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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