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Singh U.M.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Sareen P.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Sengar R.S.,Sardar Patel University | Kumar A.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2013

Up to two-thirds of the world population is at risk of deficiency in one or more essential mineral elements. In order to overcome deficiency disorders of mineral nutrients, biofortification approach in crops is an absolute requirement to eliminate the hidden hunger. Hence, the aim of crop biofortification is shifting from food security to nutritional security. In this context, ionomics becomes essential to identify potential gene(s) responsible for the uptake, transport, and storage of ions in plants. It involves the measurement of elemental composition of an organism and change in their composition in relation to physiological, developmental, environmental, and genetic factors. It renders the functional analysis of genes and gene networks that directly or indirectly affect the whole ionome. The present review deals with the study of ionome with special reference to different types of ionic interactions, quantifications, and gene identification. © 2013 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Gutam S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gutam S.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Communications in Biometry and Crop Science | Year: 2011

In an experiment with new hexaploid wheat lines existing lines and other tetraploids was conducted in the Rabi (post-rainy) 2001 and 2002 dry seasons. The data on yield and yield components shows that the tetraploids had more spikes plant -1 but fewer seeds spike -1 and a lower seed weight spike -1. The most important yield component the 1000-grain yield was shown by the hexaploids. The new hexaploid lines DL-1266-1 and DL-1266-2 had the maximum grain growth rate at 5 - 15 days after anthesis (DAA). Line DL-1266-2 had the highest grain growth rate 0.09 g g -1 day -1. Photosynthetic rate values showed that the hexaploids had a higher rate than the tetraploids. Generally, at 7 and 15 DAA, the photosynthetic rate was higher compared to 25 DAA and 35 DAA. It appears that in the high yielding hexaploids (DL-1266-1 & DL-1266-2) a better photosynthetic rate and better mobilization of photosynthates during grain filling contributes to their higher yield. © CBCS 2011.


Jyotshna,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Srivastava P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Killadi B.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Shanker K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390 nm, while lupeol at 610 nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) between of acidity and TSSC with mangiferin and lupeol in pulp and peel during storage were also observed. ©2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gupta V.K.,National University of Ireland | Misra A.K.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2012

Wilt is a serious disease of guava crop in India. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii and F. solani have been reported as the main causative agents of this disease. Most recently a survey on guava plants affected with wilt disease was conducted in severely affected areas of India, and two new species of Fusarium viz. Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium chlamydosporum were found to be associated with this disease. However, pathogenecity of Fusarium chlamydosporum was successfully conducted in the field trials. The culture of F. chlamydosporum was processed for DNA sequencing and DNA sequence was submitted to NCBI with GenBank accession no. HM102506. The submitted DNA sequence of F. chlamydosporum was compared for the genetic position in Fusarium spp. evolutionary phylogenic tree. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Chaudhury R.,Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit | Malik S.K.,Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit | Rajan S.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Cryo-Letters | Year: 2010

An improved method for pollen collection from freshly dehiscing anthers of mango (Mangifera indica L.) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) using the organic solvent cyclohexane has been devised. Using this method pollen quantity sufficient for large scale pollinations could be collected and stored for future use. Transport of pollen in viable conditions over long distances, from site of collection (field genebank) to cryolab was successfully devised for both these fruit species. Cryopreservation was successfully applied to achieve long-term pollen storage over periods of up to four years. Pollen viability was tested using in vitro germination, the fluorochromatic reaction (FCR) method and by fruit set following field pollination. On retesting, four year cryostored pollen of different mango and litchi varieties showed high percentage viability as good as fresh control pollens. Pollens of more than 180 cultivars of mango and 19 cultivars of litchi have been stored in the cryogenebank using the technology developed, thus facilitating breeding programmes over the long-term.


Kumar P.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Kumar P.,University of Lucknow | Misra A.K.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Modi D.R.,University of Lucknow
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2011

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) occupies a pre-eminent place amongst fruit crops in India and is acknowledged as 'King of fruits' in the country. Malformation is the most threatening malady that causes great economic loss and limits the mango production in India and among tropical and subtropical countries around the globe. Floral malformation, in contrast to vegetative one, is very virulent and can cause the loss of the entire crop. Affected panicles either do not set fruit or abort fruit shortly after they have set; yields can be reduced by as much as 50-80%. Mango Malformation Disease is a fungal disease of mangoes caused by Fusarium species Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans. Mango is the only known host of the disease. Numerous studies on physiological, fungal, acarological, nutritional aspects have attempted, still the nature of the disorder is not fully understood. Keeping in view the seriousness of the problem, the present review explores out to establish a suitable genetic base, indicating the degree of resistance against malformation in different mango cultivars grown under open, natural field infection conditions. Disease management practices through various approaches. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Kumar D.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Ashfaque M.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Muthukumar M.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Singh M.,University of Lucknow | Garg N.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

Mango peel, a solid mango processing waste, comprises 15-20% of total fruit weight. This, being a rich source of lignocelluloses, was used as substrate for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) production using Paenibacillus polymyxa. Maximum CMCase production (7.814 U mg -1) was observed in a medium containing 7% mango peel (w/v) with 1.5% ammonium sulphate (w/v) at 37°C and pH 5.5. Purification to an extent of 28.24 fold was achieved by affinity column chromatography. Bands corresponding to 26.5 and 34.0 kDa molecular sizes were observed on 12% denaturing Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) while of 72 kDa on 10% non-denaturing Native-PAGE, proving its heteromeric multienzyme nature. The enzyme was stable over a range of 20-60°C and pH of 4.0-7.5. Michaelis-Menten equation constant (K m and V max) values of purified CMCase were 8.73 mg ml -1 and 17.805 mM ml -1 min -1, respectively. © 2012 Triveni Enterprises.


Kumar D.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Muthukumar M.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Garg N.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

Extracellular α-amylase mass produced by Fusarium solani using mango kernel as substrate was immobilized in calcium alginate beads through entrapment technique. Maximum enzyme immobilization efficiency was achieved in 2 mm size beads formed by 6.5 % (w/v) of sodium alginate in 2%(w/v) calcium chloride. The catalytic properties of the immobilized α-amylase were compared with that of free enzyme (soluble). The activity yield of the immobilized enzyme was 81 % of the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 4.5-6.0 and temperature 40 °C, in contrast to the free enzyme at 5.5 and 30°C, respectively. Thermal stability of the immobilized enzyme was found to be more than the free enzyme over a longer time interval. The immobilized enzyme retained activity upto 20%of optimum even after 180 min. While the free enzyme lost its 80%activity after 60 min and lost total activity down to zero by 120 min. The kinetic constants, viz., KM (Michaelis constant), V max and activation energy were affected by immobilization. However, the immobilized α-amylase in calciunialginate beads supports its long term storage which has immense industrial applications. © Triveni Enterprises.


Bhattacherjee A.K.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Tandon D.K.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Dikshit A.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture | Kumar S.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

A study was carried out to detect the changes in colour and quality attributes of aonla juice during storage after pasteurization at different temperatures. After extracting juice from aonla cv. Chakaiya, it was pasteurized at five different temperatures and preserved with 500 ppm SO2 in PET bottles under ambient conditions. Juice was periodically analysed for colour and chemical characters up to 9 months of storage. Though the contents of ascorbic acid and polyphenols in juice decreased with increase in storage period, the effect of pasteurization temperature was not significant. High degree of browning was observed in juice heated at higher temperatures (90 and 95 °C) as compared to lower temperatures (75 and 80 °C) throughout the storage period as indicated by increase in NEB values. The degree of browning was further confirmed by higher negative numerical values of whiteness index in Hunter's scale for intensity of colour. HPLC data indicated that content of gallic acid in juice decreased initially but increased sharply as the storage period prolonged. Higher amount of gallic acid was detected after 9 months of storage in juice pasteurized at 95 °C than in juice heated at 75 °C. The contents of kaempferol and caffeic acid decreased throughout the storage period irrespective of pasteurization temperature. Though least browning was observed in juice pasteurized at 75 °C, but microbial growth was observed after 9 months of storage. Hence, pasteurization temperature of 80 °C was found optimum for preservation of aonla juice under ambient conditions. © Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2011.


Bhattacherjee A.K.,Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2013

Imidacloprid was sprayed on mango cv. Dashehari at 0.3 mL L-1 of water during pre-bloom stage with 6-8 cm panicle size (first week of March) to control hopper and carbosulfan was sprayed at 2.0 mL L-1 of water in the trees of mango hybrid (H-1000) during fruit development stage (first week of May) to control leaf webber. Residues of both the insecticides were analysed in peel, pulp and fruit at different stages of fruit development and maturity. The initial residues of imidacloprid, after 30 days of spraying, were 1.21, 0.56 and 1.77 mg kg-1 in peel, pulp and whole fruit, respectively. The residues persisted in peel for 60 days and in pulp for 50 days and dissipated with a half-life of 38 days. Mature Dashehari fruits at harvest (after 85 days of spraying) were free from imidacloprid residues. Carbosulfan in mango peel dissipated from 5.30 mg kg-1 (after 1 h of spraying) to 0.05 mg kg-1 at the time of harvest (after 45 days of spraying). Carbosulfan residue in pulp was very low (0.08 mg kg-1) after 1 h of spraying, which increased gradually to 0.90 mg kg-1 after 10 days and finally came down to 0.04 mg kg-1 after 26 days of spraying. The insecticide residue was not detected in the pulp at the time of harvest. The residues persisted in pulp for 26 days and in peel for 45 days and degraded with a half-life of 7 days. The dissipation of both imidacloprid and carbosulfan followed first order rate kinetics in whole fruit (peel + pulp). Therefore, the safe pre-harvest intervals were suggested to be 55 days for imidacloprid and 46 days for carbosulfan before consumption of mango fruits after spraying of these insecticides. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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