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Rout P.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Kaushik R.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Ramachandran N.,CIRG
Cell Stress and Chaperones | Year: 2016

It has been established that the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is temperature-dependent. The Hsp70 response is considered as a cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. The variation in Hsp70 gene expression has been positively correlated with thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, rodents and human. Goats have a wide range of ecological adaptability due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics; however, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress. The present study was carried out to analyze the expression of heat shock proteins in different tissues and to contrast heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. The investigation has been carried out in Jamunapari, Barbari, Jakhrana and Sirohi goats. These breeds differ in size, coat colour and production performance. The heat stress assessment in goats was carried out at a temperature humidity index (THI) ranging from 85.36–89.80 over the period. Phenotyping for heat stress susceptibility was carried out by combining respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). Based on the distribution of RR and HR over the breeds in the population, individual animals were recognized as heat stress-susceptible (HSS) and heat stress-tolerant (HST). Based on their physiological responses, the selected animals were slaughtered for tissue collection during peak heat stress periods. The tissue samples from different organs such as liver, spleen, heart, testis, brain and lungs were collected and stored at −70 °C for future use. Hsp70 concentrations were analyzed from tissue extract with ELISA. mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR green method. Kidney, liver and heart had 1.5–2.0-fold higher Hsp70 concentrations as compared to other organs in the tissue extracts. Similarly, the gene expression pattern of Hsp70 in different organs indicated that the liver, spleen, brain and kidney exhibited 5.94, 4.96, 5.29 and 2.63-fold higher expression than control. Liver and brain tissues showed the highest gene expression at mRNA levels as compared to kidney, spleen and heart. HST individuals had higher levels of mRNA level expression than HSS individuals in all breeds. The Sirohi breed showed the highest (6.3-fold) mRNA expression levels as compared to the other three breeds, indicating the better heat stress regulation activity in the breed. © 2016, Cell Stress Society International.


PubMed | ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats and CIRG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell stress & chaperones | Year: 2016

It has been established that the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is temperature-dependent. The Hsp70 response is considered as a cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. The variation in Hsp70 gene expression has been positively correlated with thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, rodents and human. Goats have a wide range of ecological adaptability due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics; however, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress. The present study was carried out to analyze the expression of heat shock proteins in different tissues and to contrast heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. The investigation has been carried out in Jamunapari, Barbari, Jakhrana and Sirohi goats. These breeds differ in size, coat colour and production performance. The heat stress assessment in goats was carried out at a temperature humidity index (THI) ranging from 85.36-89.80 over the period. Phenotyping for heat stress susceptibility was carried out by combining respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). Based on the distribution of RR and HR over the breeds in the population, individual animals were recognized as heat stress-susceptible (HSS) and heat stress-tolerant (HST). Based on their physiological responses, the selected animals were slaughtered for tissue collection during peak heat stress periods. The tissue samples from different organs such as liver, spleen, heart, testis, brain and lungs were collected and stored at -70C for future use. Hsp70 concentrations were analyzed from tissue extract with ELISA. mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR green method. Kidney, liver and heart had 1.5-2.0-fold higher Hsp70 concentrations as compared to other organs in the tissue extracts. Similarly, the gene expression pattern of Hsp70 in different organs indicated that the liver, spleen, brain and kidney exhibited 5.94, 4.96, 5.29 and 2.63-fold higher expression than control. Liver and brain tissues showed the highest gene expression at mRNA levels as compared to kidney, spleen and heart. HST individuals had higher levels of mRNA level expression than HSS individuals in all breeds. The Sirohi breed showed the highest (6.3-fold) mRNA expression levels as compared to the other three breeds, indicating the better heat stress regulation activity in the breed.


Goel P.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Goel P.,GLA University | Goel A.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Goel A.K.,Female Reproduction Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

The present study was aimed to assess the efficacy of different culture media for blastocyst development. Oocytes (2,539) from 1,059 ovaries recovered by follicle puncture technique were utilized for present investigation. In experiment 1, effect of different embryo culture media (Gr. 1; mKSOMaa; Gr. 2; TCM-199+OEC; Gr. 3; mSOFaa and Gr. 4; mCR2aa) and in experiment 2, effect of sequential embryo culture medium, Gr. 1: mKSOMaa containing 5% FBS (1-3 days) and 10% FBS (4-10 days); Gr. 2: 0.8% BSA (1-3 days) and continuous embryo culture medium, 10% FBS (4-10 days); Gr. 3: 0.8% BSA (1-10 days) and Gr. 4: 10% FBS (1-10 days) on in vitro blastocyst development potential was evaluated. Significant higher (P<0.05) blastocyst production rate was observed in TCM-199 co-culture with OEC and mKSOMaa medium compared to mSOFaa embryo culture medium. Similarly, significantly higher morula production rate was observed in mKSOMaa medium compared to mSOFaa and mCR2aa medium. However, numerically higher number of embryos cleaved in mSOFaa medium compared to TCM-199 co-culture with OEC. Results indicated that embryos cultured in mKSOMaa, TCM-199+OEC and mCR2aa embryo development media are equally effective in supporting pre-implantation development.While considering the risk factor associated with OEC co-culture, mKSOMaa is proved to be efficient medium for obtaining higher in vitro embryo development rate. In experiment 2, significantly higher morula and blastocyst formation was observed in sequential embryo culture medium compared to BSA supplemented continuous embryo culture medium. Further, the present findings indicated that the use of mKSOMaa+0.8% BSA or 5% FBS for first 3 days of embryo culture resulted in increased rate of blastocyst stage embryos, if initial 3 days of culture in mKSOMaa+0.8% BSA was followed by culture in mKSOMaa containing 10% FBS. However, no significant difference was observed in sequential embryo culture medium and continuous embryo culture medium supplemented with 10% FBS. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Rajkumar V.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Verma A.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Patra G.,WBUAFS | Pradhan S.,WBUAFS | And 3 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AV G replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AV G significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AV G in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AV G reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AV G over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AV G up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values. Copyright © 2016 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.


Kumar V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kumar V.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Singh B.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dutt T.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

Goats make important contributions to the stability of smallholder farming system by providing financial resources for purchase of farm inputs and household needs, nutritional security, skin and fibers, employment and organic manure. In the recent study, a total of 240 goat farmers of two districts (Firozabad and Mainpuri) of the semi-arid zone of Uttar Pradesh, India were interviewed. Weight of 227 goats (≤1 year) were taken by spring balance and information regarding production performance of different traits were collected by interview of goat farmers. Based on the results, goat farmers were classified into three categories viz. landless (25.8%), marginal (54.2%) and small and semi-medium (20%), respectively. Milk yield of Sirohi, Barbari and non-descript breeds were 0.9, 0.6 and 0.8 liter/day, respectively. Jakhrana breed of goat had highest weight irrespective of age and sex, whereas Barbari has lowest among all breeds found in the study area. Dilution of pure breed line and low adoption of recommended management in the study area were important factors for low productivity. Total mortality rate in goat was 21.16% which was highest among 1-3 months old followed by 3-6 months and above 6 months age group, respectively. Age of first kidding, kidding interval and kidding % of non-descript breed in the field were 17.6 months, 11.4 months and 1.29, respectively. There was positive correlation between number of buck kept by farmers and their flock size. Buck of Sirohi breed were most preferred by farmers (72.4%) in study area. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Kumar R.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Tripathi P.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Chaudhary U.B.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Tripathi M.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Singh R.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2015

Present study was conducted to examine the effect of replacing concentrate mixture with sun-dried azolla on growth, nutrient utilization, blood and rumen metabolites in growing Barbari goats in completely randomized design. Male Barbari goats (12) were divided into 2 groups, control and experimental, consisting of 6 animals in each group. The control group was fed with complete pellet feed having Bengal gram straw and concentrate mixture in 60:40 ratio, experimental group was fed with complete pellet feed in which 25% of concentrate mixture was replaced with sun-dried azolla. The duration of experimental feeding was 8 weeks. Weekly body weights were recorded to assess growth rate of goats. After 6 weeks of experimental feeding a metabolism trial of 6 days duration was conducted to determine nutrients digestibility and nitrogen balance. Blood and rumen liquor samples were collected at the end of experimental feeding. The average daily gain (g) of control group (56.60) and experimental group (78.12) was statistically similar. The goat of control and experimental group had statistically similar daily dry matter intake. The digestibility (%) of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract and total carbohydrate was statistically similar to control and experimental group of goat (52.41, 55.46, 69.72 and 57.46 respectively). Crude protein digestibility was significantly higher in treatment group (77.43) as compared to control (71.14) group of goats. The digestibility (%) of different fibre fractions (neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre), cellulose and hemicellulose were similar in treatment group. Animals of both the groups were in positive balance of nitrogen. There was no statistically significant effect replacement of concentrate mixture with sun-dried azolla on hematology and blood biochemical metabolites (hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglycerides and total cholesterol) of goats. The pH of rumen fluid was 6.30 for control group and 6.25 for experimental group of goats. Total volatile fatty acids (mmol/100ml) were statistically similar in control (15.46) and treatment (16.70) groups of goats. There was no significant difference in nitrogenous fractions (mg/dl), total nitrogen, TCA-ppt nitrogen and non protein nitrogen of rumen fluid collected at the end of experimental feeding of control and treatment group of goats. From present study it can be concluded that sun-dried azolla can replace 25% of concentrate mixture in the complete pellet feed of growing Barbari goats without any adverse effect on growth, nutrient utilization, blood and rumen fermentation parameters.


Goel A.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Kharche S.D.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Jindal S.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Kumar S.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

It is evident from our findings that oestrous cyclicity was not resumed during 60 days pp in Jakhrana female goats, as progesterone level remained at basal level (≤1.00 ng/ml) during this period. The ELISA results were further supported by ultrasonographic examination which revealed that post partum uterus regained pre-gravid stage by day 45 pp. Transrectal ultrasonography was confirmed as a reliable tool to determine uterine involution in goats. Thus, the results suggest the possibility of sustaining next pregnancy in Jakhrana goats after 60 days pp. Moreover, based upon these findings, it is clear that interventions are possible by advocating hormonal therapy in order to induce and synchronize oestrus/ovulation at or after 60 days pp from the perspective of augmenting reproductive efficiency.


Chaudhary U.B.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Tripathi M.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Tripathi P.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Dutta T.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

Male Barbari kids (56), 7 to 8 months of age and weighing19.2± 2.9 kg were randomly divided into 4 equal groups to assess the effect of source (inorganic or organic) and level of Zn, Cu, Co and Mn on intake and growth performance. The kids of control group were fed inorganic source of Zn, Cu, Co and Mn while other groups were fed organic complex (Zn, Cu and Mn amino acid and Co as cobalt heptagluconate at 50, 75 and 100 % of inorganic requirement. Feeding cum growth experiment lasted for 105 days. The live weight of kids at initiation of experiment varied from 19.12 to 19.67 kg, and final live weight ranged between 23.4 to 25.01 kg among the four groups. Total gain and average daily gain varied from 4.82 to 5.34 kg and 45.9 to 50.9 g respectively, which were not different among the four groups. The feed intake varied from 3.9 to 4.0 % of live weight. Live weight change remained lower in kids supplemented 75 and 100% organic trace minerals and had a pooled 6.9 and 9.8% lower average daily gain respectively. The feed efficiency and feed conversion ratio was similar among the four groups. Supplementation of 50% organic minerals provided daily gain equal to inorganic supplemented kids, while 75 and 100 % organic supplementation deteriorated daily gain. Therefore, at 50% organic supplementation levels, the bio-availability of Zn, Cu, Co and Mn have met the daily requirement of kids in relation to recommended requirements of inorganic minerals. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Tripathi M.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Meena R.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Rahal A.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Tripathi P.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

Unconventional feed resources namely Aloe barbadensis (ALB), Musa paradisiaca (MUP), Punica granatum (PUG), Murraya koenigii (MUK), Lawsonia inermis (LOI) and Boehravia diffusa (BOD) were assessed for in-vitro methane production potential and fermentation with whole goat rumen flora. Nutrient content of all the bioresources were different, and the gas production varied from 57.7 to 161.7 ml/ g DM, with the highest gas in ALB and the lowest in BOD. Although, gas production was different among all feed resources, however gas production for each gram DM fermented was similar in MUP, PUG, MUK and LOI leaves. Methane production ranged from 6.7 to 18.9 g and 10.5 to 22.83 g/ kg DM and g/ kg fermented DM respectively. The energy loss in the form of methane also followed the trend of gas production, which ranged from 11.4 to 17.1% of digestible energy. Therefore, feed resources with varying nutrient contents have significant variations in fermentability and methane production potential. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


PubMed | ICAR Central Institute for Research on goats
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2016

During the last decades, physiological effects of oestrogens have been increasingly explored by scientists and biotechnologists. Estrogens exert a wide range of effects on a large variety of cell types. Oestrogen and its receptors are essential for sexual development and reproduction. Estrogen receptor alpha is a nuclear receptor activated by the hormone oestrogen. In male, ER is encoded by the gene estrogen receptor gene 1 (ESR1), responsible for better fertility. The ESR1 is involved in the reabsorption of luminal fluid during the transit of spermatozoa from the testis to the head of the epididymis which is important for their survival and maturation during epididymal storage. The absence of ESR1 leads to reduced epididymal sperm content, reduced sperm motility and fertilizing ability. Therefore, this is a good startby to study the expression pattern of estrogen receptor 1 gene in high-fertile (G1) and low-fertile (G2) bucks of Jamunapari and Barbari breeds identified on the basis of seminal quality traits and fertility trials. RNA was extracted from the tissues by TRIzol method. The identification and expression pattern of caprine ESR1 gene was analysed by real-time PCR (Roche LC-480). Our work shows that the relative quantification by RT-PCR indicates more fold in head of epididymis as compared to spleen of caprine ESR1 gene. Furthermore, the RT-PCR indicated that fertile bucks of Jamunapari breed have more fold value as compared to Barbari breed in respect of reproductive organ.

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