ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats

India

ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats

India
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Das A.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Rajkumar V.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Nanda P.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chauhan P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Antioxidants | Year: 2016

In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration) in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm). The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05) total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05) throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Goel P.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Goel A.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Bhatia A.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Bhatia A.K.,GLA University | Kharche S.D.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2017

The present study was carried out to investigate the putative beneficial effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and cysteamine supplementation alone or their combination on in vitro embryo development competence of fertilized goat oocytes. Presumptive zygotes (18 h post insemination) were randomly assigned for in vitro embryo development in embryo development medium (EDM) supplemented with IGF-I (Gr. 1), Cysteamine (Gr. 2), IGFI + Cysteamine (Gr. 3) and Control containing only EDM (Gr. 4). Statistically non-significant difference was observed in cleavage rate among all the treated groups. Morula formation rate was significantly higher in IGF-I supplemented group compared to IGF-I + cysteamine supplemented and non-supplemented (control) groups. Furthermore, supplementation of IGF-I, cysteamine and IGF-I + cysteamine in embryo culture medium significantly improved blastocyst formation rate compared to control. However, a nonsignificant difference in blastocyst formation was observed among the supplemented groups. These findings lead to the conclusion that under in vitro conditions, supplementation of IGF-I and cysteamine alone or combination in IVC media were equally effective in embryo development and blastocyst production, however, this effect was significantly higher as compared to nonsupplemented group (control).


Rout P.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Matika O.,Roslin Institute | Kaushik R.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Dige M.S.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | And 2 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2017

The Jamunapari goats are reared as dairy animals in semi-arid conditions, therefore it is necessary to evaluate the genetic potential for the genetic improvement of milk production traits. The data comprised of 2217 phenotypic records for milk yield at 90 days (MY90) and 140 days (MY140), total milk yield (TMY) and lactation length (LL) obtained from the progeny of 173 sires and 446 dams during the period 1990–2013. The data were analysed using mixed linear models exploring random effects due to direct additive, maternal and permanent environment variance due to animal. The most appropriate genetic models for milk yield traits were those that included permanent environment effects due to the animal. The direct additive heritability estimates were 0.15 ± 0.05, 0.26 ± 0.07, 0.25 ± 0.08 for MY90, MY140 and TMY, respectively. The additive heritability estimate for LL was low and non-significant at 0.02 ± 0.03. The repeatability estimates were moderate to high ranging from 0.68 to 0.73 for milk yield traits. The repeatability for lactation length was 0.20 ± 0.03. Maternal variances were low ranging from 0.03 for MY90 to 0.13 for TMY. There was an increase in mean milk yield of 0.25, 0.70 and 0.72 kg/year respectively at 90 and 140 days, and for TMY. Genetic trends and phenotypic trends for MY90, MY140 and TMY were positive and indicated significant improvement in milk traits due to selective breeding. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Singh S.P.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Ramachandran N.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Tripathi M.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Bhusan S.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2017

This study investigated physiological, biochemical and endocrine responses along with nutrient intake and growth of goat kids kept on either wooden slatted or soil floor in hot-dry weather conditions. Twenty kids (age 208 ±1.7 days; live weight 26.2±0.6 kg) were divided into two equal groups and allotted to either soil or slatted floor. After 14 days of adaptation, physiological responses, serum metabolites, enzymes and hormones were estimated at weekly intervals for 28 days. All the physiological responses increased from morning to afternoon with increase in temperature-humidity index. Type of flooring did not significantly influence physiological and growth variables. The serum biochemical, enzyme and endocrine responses were similar between both the groups. Due to lack of significant effect of slatted floor on growing kids, the provision of such floor in goat shelter could be appropriate only if it is economically feasible in terms of initial inputs and labour cost in hot-dry tropical environment.


Chaudhary U.B.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Das A.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Tripathi P.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Tripathi M.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology | Year: 2015

In order to assess the influence of on-farm supplementary feeding of concentrate pellets on growth, carcass traits and quality, 35 male Sirohi goat kids (60d old), divided in two groups were maintained either on 6h sole grazing (control; n=5) or grazing with supplementation of concentrate pellets at 1.5% of LW (supplemented; n=30). Experiment lasted for 140d followed by slaughter of five representative kids from each group. The kids of supplemented group had an ADG of 110g, which was 1.8 times higher (P<0.05) than the control. The supplemented kids had finishing weight of 25 kg vs. 12.08 kg in control kids. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentages were 25.8 kg, 11.9 kg and 46.0%, and 17.5 kg, 7.4 kg and 43.0%, respectively, in supplemented and control groups, being higher (P<0.05) in supplemented group. Supplemented kids had improved (P<0.05) carcass traits, organ weight and had higher fat levels. Among non-carcass traits, blood, head and GI tract weights as % of slaughter weight were higher (P<0.05) in control kids, whereas other non-carcass traits were similar in both groups. The weights of cut portions viz. leg, loin, rack, and breast and shank, separated lean, fat and trim % and, meat: bone ratio were higher (P<0.01) in supplemented kids. The chemical constituents of Longissimus dorsi muscle were similar in both groups. Cholesterol content of the muscle was similar between two groups. It is concluded that on-farm supplementation of concentrate pellets at 1.5% of LW in growing kids improved growth performance, carcass traits and provided leaner carcass.


Verma R.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Sharma D.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Gururaj K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Paul S.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports | Year: 2017

Epidemiology and molecular characterization of Eimeria was carried in goats reared under semi-arid region of west Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 1285 faecal samples from different goat breeds (Jamunapari, Jakhrana and Barbari) were examined for presence of Eimerian oocysts over a period of eight months along with faecal oocysts count. All raw data of faecal oocyst counts (FOC) were transformed by loge (OPG + 100) before analysis. All fixed effects like breed, age, months of sample collections along with their interaction were considered in analysis. The overall prevalence of Eimeria infection in goats was 73.85%. Breed wise prevalence in Barbari, Jamunapari and Jakhrana breed was 68.62, 79.70 and 72% respectively. Prevalence observed in 2–6 M, 6–12 M and > 12 M was as 70.83, 79.88 and 71.74% respectively. Gender wise prevalence as observed in male and female goats was 71.95 and 74.43% respectively. In oocyst per gram (OPG) data analysis the fixed effects like breed, age, months of sample collection and age versus gender interaction had significant effect on log transformed faecal oocysts counts (LFOC). The overall least square means of OPG was 4.673 ± 0.007 (1403 OPG). Of the three goat breeds, Jamunapari had highest OPG (2886 OPG) compared to Jakhrana (875 OPG) and Barbari (523 OPG). Mean OPG in 2–6 month age goats was significantly higher than the corresponding values in 6–12 and > 12 months, significant variation was found among monthly OPG means and wet months showed higher faecal oocysts discharge. Nine Eimeria species were identified infecting goats and E. arloingi and E. ninakohlyakimovae were most frequent and predominant species. Molecular characterization for coccidial infection was conducted using two genes i.e. 18S rDNA and ITS-1 genes which amplified 637 bp and < 500 bp (E. ninakohlyakimovae) and > 500 bp (E. christenseni and E. alijevi) respectively. The ITS1 gene was analysed by sequencing, E. christenseni was found showing nucleotide similarity with E. bovis and E. ellipsoidalis whereas 3′ end of the sequence were highly conserved. The ITS1 gene of E. ninakohlyakimovae was found more homologous to E. bovis, E. ellipsoidalis and E. zuernii but for 33rd nucleotide thymidine residue deletion and 5th position G → A mutation. The 18S rDNA sequences of E. ninakohlyakimovae and E. christenseni were studied for evolutionary divergence analysis and maximum divergence was noticed between E. ninakohlyakimovae and E. christenseni (0.0605). The phylogenetic tree showed E. ninakohlyakimovae was placed in same clade with other Eimeria spp. compared, but E. christenseni being placed in a different clade as an out-group. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Rout P.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Kaushik R.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Ramachandran N.,CIRG
Cell Stress and Chaperones | Year: 2016

It has been established that the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is temperature-dependent. The Hsp70 response is considered as a cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. The variation in Hsp70 gene expression has been positively correlated with thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, rodents and human. Goats have a wide range of ecological adaptability due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics; however, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress. The present study was carried out to analyze the expression of heat shock proteins in different tissues and to contrast heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. The investigation has been carried out in Jamunapari, Barbari, Jakhrana and Sirohi goats. These breeds differ in size, coat colour and production performance. The heat stress assessment in goats was carried out at a temperature humidity index (THI) ranging from 85.36–89.80 over the period. Phenotyping for heat stress susceptibility was carried out by combining respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). Based on the distribution of RR and HR over the breeds in the population, individual animals were recognized as heat stress-susceptible (HSS) and heat stress-tolerant (HST). Based on their physiological responses, the selected animals were slaughtered for tissue collection during peak heat stress periods. The tissue samples from different organs such as liver, spleen, heart, testis, brain and lungs were collected and stored at −70 °C for future use. Hsp70 concentrations were analyzed from tissue extract with ELISA. mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR green method. Kidney, liver and heart had 1.5–2.0-fold higher Hsp70 concentrations as compared to other organs in the tissue extracts. Similarly, the gene expression pattern of Hsp70 in different organs indicated that the liver, spleen, brain and kidney exhibited 5.94, 4.96, 5.29 and 2.63-fold higher expression than control. Liver and brain tissues showed the highest gene expression at mRNA levels as compared to kidney, spleen and heart. HST individuals had higher levels of mRNA level expression than HSS individuals in all breeds. The Sirohi breed showed the highest (6.3-fold) mRNA expression levels as compared to the other three breeds, indicating the better heat stress regulation activity in the breed. © 2016, Cell Stress Society International.


PubMed | ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats and CIRG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell stress & chaperones | Year: 2016

It has been established that the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is temperature-dependent. The Hsp70 response is considered as a cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. The variation in Hsp70 gene expression has been positively correlated with thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, rodents and human. Goats have a wide range of ecological adaptability due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics; however, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress. The present study was carried out to analyze the expression of heat shock proteins in different tissues and to contrast heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. The investigation has been carried out in Jamunapari, Barbari, Jakhrana and Sirohi goats. These breeds differ in size, coat colour and production performance. The heat stress assessment in goats was carried out at a temperature humidity index (THI) ranging from 85.36-89.80 over the period. Phenotyping for heat stress susceptibility was carried out by combining respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). Based on the distribution of RR and HR over the breeds in the population, individual animals were recognized as heat stress-susceptible (HSS) and heat stress-tolerant (HST). Based on their physiological responses, the selected animals were slaughtered for tissue collection during peak heat stress periods. The tissue samples from different organs such as liver, spleen, heart, testis, brain and lungs were collected and stored at -70C for future use. Hsp70 concentrations were analyzed from tissue extract with ELISA. mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR green method. Kidney, liver and heart had 1.5-2.0-fold higher Hsp70 concentrations as compared to other organs in the tissue extracts. Similarly, the gene expression pattern of Hsp70 in different organs indicated that the liver, spleen, brain and kidney exhibited 5.94, 4.96, 5.29 and 2.63-fold higher expression than control. Liver and brain tissues showed the highest gene expression at mRNA levels as compared to kidney, spleen and heart. HST individuals had higher levels of mRNA level expression than HSS individuals in all breeds. The Sirohi breed showed the highest (6.3-fold) mRNA expression levels as compared to the other three breeds, indicating the better heat stress regulation activity in the breed.


Kumar V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kumar V.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Goats | Singh B.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dutt T.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

Goats make important contributions to the stability of smallholder farming system by providing financial resources for purchase of farm inputs and household needs, nutritional security, skin and fibers, employment and organic manure. In the recent study, a total of 240 goat farmers of two districts (Firozabad and Mainpuri) of the semi-arid zone of Uttar Pradesh, India were interviewed. Weight of 227 goats (≤1 year) were taken by spring balance and information regarding production performance of different traits were collected by interview of goat farmers. Based on the results, goat farmers were classified into three categories viz. landless (25.8%), marginal (54.2%) and small and semi-medium (20%), respectively. Milk yield of Sirohi, Barbari and non-descript breeds were 0.9, 0.6 and 0.8 liter/day, respectively. Jakhrana breed of goat had highest weight irrespective of age and sex, whereas Barbari has lowest among all breeds found in the study area. Dilution of pure breed line and low adoption of recommended management in the study area were important factors for low productivity. Total mortality rate in goat was 21.16% which was highest among 1-3 months old followed by 3-6 months and above 6 months age group, respectively. Age of first kidding, kidding interval and kidding % of non-descript breed in the field were 17.6 months, 11.4 months and 1.29, respectively. There was positive correlation between number of buck kept by farmers and their flock size. Buck of Sirohi breed were most preferred by farmers (72.4%) in study area. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


PubMed | ICAR Central Institute for Research on goats
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2016

During the last decades, physiological effects of oestrogens have been increasingly explored by scientists and biotechnologists. Estrogens exert a wide range of effects on a large variety of cell types. Oestrogen and its receptors are essential for sexual development and reproduction. Estrogen receptor alpha is a nuclear receptor activated by the hormone oestrogen. In male, ER is encoded by the gene estrogen receptor gene 1 (ESR1), responsible for better fertility. The ESR1 is involved in the reabsorption of luminal fluid during the transit of spermatozoa from the testis to the head of the epididymis which is important for their survival and maturation during epididymal storage. The absence of ESR1 leads to reduced epididymal sperm content, reduced sperm motility and fertilizing ability. Therefore, this is a good startby to study the expression pattern of estrogen receptor 1 gene in high-fertile (G1) and low-fertile (G2) bucks of Jamunapari and Barbari breeds identified on the basis of seminal quality traits and fertility trials. RNA was extracted from the tissues by TRIzol method. The identification and expression pattern of caprine ESR1 gene was analysed by real-time PCR (Roche LC-480). Our work shows that the relative quantification by RT-PCR indicates more fold in head of epididymis as compared to spleen of caprine ESR1 gene. Furthermore, the RT-PCR indicated that fertile bucks of Jamunapari breed have more fold value as compared to Barbari breed in respect of reproductive organ.

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