Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG

Mathura, India

Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG

Mathura, India
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Hasan K.,Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University | Rathnamma D.,Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University | Narayanaswamy H.D.,Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University | Malathi V.,Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University | And 2 more authors.
Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences | Year: 2017

Tissue samples (livers and ovaries) were collected from thirty birds suffering from dehydration, pyrexia and outbreak of sudden death in a local poultry farm situated at Kolar, India. The outbreak had taken a toll of 180 broiler parent stock birds. Main symptoms and lesions were sudden death and air sacculitis. In order to investigate the causative agents, microbiological examination confirmed 15 samples positive Escherichiaceae coli, 10 (33%) for Salmonella spp. 3 (10%) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 2 (6.6%) for Klebsiella spp. On the basis of antibiotic sensitivity tests, Gentamicin showed 100% sensitivity and Doxycycline showed 36.6% sensitivity for the growth inhibition of E.coli isolates. However, Ciprofloxacin and Enrofloxacin shown 100% resistant, which raise serious concerns. This resistance might be due to indiscriminate use of these antibiotics irrespective of etiological agents. Salmonella spp. isolates are highly sensitive to Gentamicin followed by Doxycyclline. Due to involvement of E. coli and Salmonella in public health significance, findings propose control use of antibiotics and only after antibiotic screening. © 2017 K-Hassan et al.


Tiwari R.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavid Evum Go An Sans DUVASU | Verma A.K.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavid Evum Go An Sans DUVASU | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh S.V.,Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Since ancient era, herbal therapy remained as medicine's backbone which is economic, safer and easily available to most of people in world. Among diverse herbal treasure, Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a highly esteemed tree with several beneficial properties and applications especially known for its incredible therapeutic and ethnomedicinal values for humankind. Neem is regarded as "free tree of India", "wonder tree", "Nature's drug store", Village dispensary", "Divine tree", "heal all", "Materia medica" and "Panacea of all Diseases". It is among highly exploited medicinal plant of Indian origin. It has been used in different medicinal systems: ayurveda, unani, homoeopathic medicine, therefore, considered as cynosure of modern medicine. All parts of the plant have some biological and medicinal properties hence valuable source of natural medicinal products. Compounds isolated from neem are broadly classified into two: (1) Isoprenoids (2) Non-isoprenoids. Isoprenoid compounds consists of diterpenoids, triterpenoids and steroids while while non-isoprenoids contains proteins and/or amino acids, polysaccharides, flavonoids etc. It is found beneficial in leprosy, gastro-intestinal problems, malaria, intestinal helminthiasis, tuberculosis, ringworms, skin disorders, boils, epilepsy, fever, respiratory distress, nausea, ulcers and in many other health related problems. This review gives a bird's eye view particularly on history, classification, active principles, mechanism of action and potential uses of neem in safeguarding human and animal health along with the several commercial preparations available in the market. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


PubMed | Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance PD ADMAS, Gujarat University, West Health Institute and Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Iranian journal of veterinary research | Year: 2016

In the present study, the therapeutic potential of bacteriophages virulent to Staphylococcus aureus associated with goat mastitis were isolated, identified and assessed. Staphylococcus aureus (host or indicator bacterium) was isolated from a goat suffering from clinical mastitis. Based on cultural, morphological, biochemical tests and amplification of S. aureus specific thermonuclease gene in PCR, the identity of the organism was confirmed as S. aureus. Bacteriophages were isolated from soil and faecal samples (n=42) collected from different parts of the Mathura district in Uttar Pradesh (India), and their identity was confirmed by amplification of the bacteriophage-specific endolysin gene fragment in PCR. The thermal tolerance study revealed that all phage isolates were stable at 30 and 40C with 100% lytic efficacy and their activities reduced to 62-80% at 50C declining sharply at 60C with less than 5% efficacy. Likewise, at pH = 6.5 and 7.5, the survivability of all isolates was 100% which reduced to 70-79% and 84-91% at pH = 5.5 and 8.5, respectively. All isolates were stable up to 3 months at 37C, and for 16 months at 4C but the stability of their respective endolysins only lasted for 12-23 days at 37C and 6 months at 4C. Three of the bacteriophage isolates, S. aureus phage/CIRG/1, S. aureus phage/CIRG/4 and S. aureus phage/CIRG/5 exhibited lytic activity against over 80% of the staphylococcal isolates. The results of the present study provide insight for the use of lytic bacteriophages for therapeutic interventions against multi-drug-resistant S. aureus inducing mastitis in goats.


Tiwari R.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upa Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwa Vid Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehm Complex | Saminathan M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh S.V.,Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Ashwagandha (Withania somngera) is a well known herb possessing several health benefits. The steroidal lactones (withanolides) obtained from its roots have been implicated in a wide range of therapeutic activities and maintaining general health Immunomodulation, combating infectious agents, anti-cancer and anti-epileptic, memory enhancer, to promote good physical and mental health, mood elevator, diuretic, general tonic and rejuvenator, stress reliever, cardiorespiratory endurance enhancer, anti-ageing, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and in common an effective adaptogen. Steroidal alkaloids and lactones are the active constituents of the plant. Withanolides as per theory occupies the receptor sites in the cell membrane thereby preventing the attachment and subsequent exertion of the effect of actual hormone. Withanolides have got analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity due to cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition propem. Ashwagandha enhances nitric oxide synthatase activity of the macrophages, which in turn increases the microbial killing power of these immune cells thereby enhancing the Cell Medated Immune (CMI) response. A glycoprotein Glycowithanolides (WSG) commonly known as W. somngera glycoprotein is responsible for antimicrobial activity. Milk supplemented with Ashwagandha has been repoded to increase total proteim and body weight and the plant alone helps in inducing tolerance and dependence. Its anti-stress and radiosensitization action; beneficial effects on cardiovascular system and sexual behavior; curative propedies agaimt neurodegenerative dseases and poisoning due to toxins and chemicals (includng snake venom) has made th~psl ant a treasure of nature. Thus the plant is an impodant component of many polyherbal preparatiom. Impodant for researchers and scientists is that biotechnologically advanced techniques; novel disciplines of bioinformatics and genomics can help in identifying and generating bioactive principles of the plant. All these salient health applications of this herb in biomedcine and veterinaq sciences are dscussed in th~sre view focusing its potent role in maintaining sound health, immunomodulatory effects, combating infections, therapeutic usages and other beneficial applicatiom. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Kouamo J.,University of Ngaoundéré | Kharche S.D.,Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC's) were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG (20 IU/ml), hCG (20 IUμg/ml), oestradiol-17β (1 μg/ml), BSA embryo tested (3 mg/ml) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86%. Morphological matured oocytes (n=749) were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=223) in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 μm calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR2aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 (n=526) in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR2aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36%, 23.07% and 9.23%, and 30.99%, 19.63% and 9.82%, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF.


Reddy G.B.M.,Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG | Singh R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh R.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh K.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2011

Rabies is endemic and an important zoonosis in India. There are very few reports available on molecular epidemiology of rabies virus of Indian origin. In this study to know the dynamics of rabies virus, a total of 41 rabies positive brain samples from dogs, cats, domestic animals, wildlife, and humans from 11 states were subjected to RT-PCR amplification of N gene between nucleotide N521-N1262 (742 bp) and P gene between nucleotide P239-P750 (512 bp). The N gene could be amplified from 30, while P gene from 41 samples, using specific sets of primers. The N gene-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that all Indian virus isolates are genetically closely related with a single cluster under arctic/arctic-like viruses. However, two distinct clusters were realized in P gene-based phylogeny viz., Rabies virus isolates of Punjab and Rabies virus isolates of remaining parts of India (other than Punjab). All the Indian rabies virus isolates were closely related to geography (>95% homology), but not to host species. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Verma A.K.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan | Saminathan M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Neha,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan | Tiwari R.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Glanders is a contagious and highly fatal zoonotic disease affecting horses, donkeys and mules as well as man leading to formation of nodules and ulcerations in the upper respiratory tract and lungs. This is a notifiable disease under Glanders and Farcy Act, 1899. The disease is caused by Burkholderia mallei, a gram negative bacteria, non-spore forming, non-motile rod bacterium and is a facultative intracellular pathogen. The disease has been eradicated from many countries by testing and destruction diseased horses and restriction of import of animals. However, the disease is endemic in Africa, Asia, Mongolia, Middle East, Central and South America. In India, major glanders outbreaks were reported between 1976 to 1982 from different parts of the country. Later, sporadic cases were reported in 1988, 1990 and 1998. India was remained free of glanders for 8 years until recent re-emerging outbreaks started from 2006 to 2011. The occurrence of the disease leads to international trade restrictions. Glanders is primarily a disease of equines which causes chronic disease in horses and acute disease in donkeys and mules. Human is accidental host and the disease usually results from occupational exposure. Though the organism is susceptible to various antibiotics in vitro treatment is difficult and needs longer course with combination of antibiotics upon early diagnosis. It can be used as a biological weapon and has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a category B bio-threat agent and at present no vaccine is available for this bacterium either in humans or animals. This review describes this important disease covering its etiology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, public health significance, diagnosis, treatment and prevention and control strategies to be adapted to combat this deadly zoonotic pathogen. © Asian Network for Scientific Information.


PubMed | Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG and University of Ngaoundéré
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Iranian journal of veterinary research | Year: 2016

The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG (20 IU/ml), hCG (20 IUg/ml), oestradiol-17 (1 g/ml), BSA embryo tested (3 mg/ml) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86%. Morphological matured oocytes (n=749) were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=223) in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 m calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR2aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 (n=526) in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR2aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36%, 23.07% and 9.23%, and 30.99%, 19.63% and 9.82%, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF.


PubMed | Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Iranian journal of veterinary research | Year: 2016

This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of different activation treatments for activation of in vitro matured oocytes and their developmental potency in mCR2aa medium so as to obtain maximum number of embryos. A total of 1090 cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from 480 ovaries. In vitro matured oocytes were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 in vitro matured oocytes (n=226) were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 2 in vitro matured oocytes (n=294) were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 10 g/ml CHX for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 3 in vitro matured oocytes (n=325) were exposed to 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP and 10 g/ml CHX for 4 h in mCR2aa medium. Group 4 in vitro matured oocytes (n=108) were cultured for 4 h without any chemical treatment in mCR2aa medium (control). The cleavage rate in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 54.42%, 44.55%, 51.69% and 0.00%, respectively. The percentage of morula and blastocyst production in group 1, group 2 and group 3 was 26.01%, 29.77% and 29.76% and 2.43%, 1.52% and 1.78%, respectively. These results suggest that the activation of in vitro matured oocytes by 7% ethanol for 5 min followed by treatment with 2.0 mM DMAP for 4 h in mCR2aa is most favorable for parthenogenetic caprine embryos production.


PubMed | Central Institute for Research on goats CIRG and Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Iranian journal of veterinary research | Year: 2016

The present study was undertaken to analyze the expression pattern of estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) in Barbari bucks (fertile and non-fertile) identified on the basis of seminal quality traits and fertility trials. RNA was extracted from the spleen by Trizol method. The expression pattern of ESR1 gene was analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression pattern of ESR1 gene was analyzed by RT-PCR (Roche LC-480). Relative quantification by RT-PCR indicated that the ESR1 gene expression showed more fold in fertile bucks as compared to non-fertile.

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