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Reddy G.B.M.,Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG | Singh R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh R.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh K.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2011

Rabies is endemic and an important zoonosis in India. There are very few reports available on molecular epidemiology of rabies virus of Indian origin. In this study to know the dynamics of rabies virus, a total of 41 rabies positive brain samples from dogs, cats, domestic animals, wildlife, and humans from 11 states were subjected to RT-PCR amplification of N gene between nucleotide N521-N1262 (742 bp) and P gene between nucleotide P239-P750 (512 bp). The N gene could be amplified from 30, while P gene from 41 samples, using specific sets of primers. The N gene-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that all Indian virus isolates are genetically closely related with a single cluster under arctic/arctic-like viruses. However, two distinct clusters were realized in P gene-based phylogeny viz., Rabies virus isolates of Punjab and Rabies virus isolates of remaining parts of India (other than Punjab). All the Indian rabies virus isolates were closely related to geography (>95% homology), but not to host species. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Umaraw P.,Up Pt Deen Dayal Upadhyay Veterinary Research And Go Anusandhan Sansthan | Pathak V.,Up Pt Deen Dayal Upadhyay Veterinary Research And Go Anusandhan Sansthan | Rajkumar V.,Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG | Verma A.K.,Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG | Singh V.P.,Up Pt Deen Dayal Upadhyay Veterinary Research And Go Anusandhan Sansthan
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2015

Edible byproducts or organ meats of Barbari kids (Capra hircus) were analyzed for their fatty acid and mineral profile. Mineral profile analysis revealed significant (P< 0.05) difference between muscle and organ meat. Kidney had highest sodium content (202.39 mg/100 g) whereas potassium content was greatest in testicles (362.61 mg/100 g). Copper, iron and zinc were found to be highest in liver (6.97 mg/100 g), spleen (31.16 mg/100 g) and muscle (4.15 mg/100 g) respectively. Different categories of fatty acids i.e., saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and ratio of PUFA/SFA, n6/n3 etc were also estimated. Spleen evinced the highest saturated fatty acid content (54.95%) although monounsaturated fatty acid content was greatest in muscle (40.36%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were highest in liver (22.54%). PUFA/SFA ratio of liver (0.49) was similar to the recommended level whereas, spleen, brain and testicles showed favorable n6/n3 ratio. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

Kouamo J.,University of Ngaoundere | Kharche S.D.,Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC's) were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG (20 IU/ml), hCG (20 IUμg/ml), oestradiol-17β (1 μg/ml), BSA embryo tested (3 mg/ml) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86%. Morphological matured oocytes (n=749) were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=223) in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 μm calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR2aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 (n=526) in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR2aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36%, 23.07% and 9.23%, and 30.99%, 19.63% and 9.82%, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF.

Tiwari R.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavid Evum Go An Sans DUVASU | Verma A.K.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavid Evum Go An Sans DUVASU | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh S.V.,Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Since ancient era, herbal therapy remained as medicine's backbone which is economic, safer and easily available to most of people in world. Among diverse herbal treasure, Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a highly esteemed tree with several beneficial properties and applications especially known for its incredible therapeutic and ethnomedicinal values for humankind. Neem is regarded as "free tree of India", "wonder tree", "Nature's drug store", Village dispensary", "Divine tree", "heal all", "Materia medica" and "Panacea of all Diseases". It is among highly exploited medicinal plant of Indian origin. It has been used in different medicinal systems: ayurveda, unani, homoeopathic medicine, therefore, considered as cynosure of modern medicine. All parts of the plant have some biological and medicinal properties hence valuable source of natural medicinal products. Compounds isolated from neem are broadly classified into two: (1) Isoprenoids (2) Non-isoprenoids. Isoprenoid compounds consists of diterpenoids, triterpenoids and steroids while while non-isoprenoids contains proteins and/or amino acids, polysaccharides, flavonoids etc. It is found beneficial in leprosy, gastro-intestinal problems, malaria, intestinal helminthiasis, tuberculosis, ringworms, skin disorders, boils, epilepsy, fever, respiratory distress, nausea, ulcers and in many other health related problems. This review gives a bird's eye view particularly on history, classification, active principles, mechanism of action and potential uses of neem in safeguarding human and animal health along with the several commercial preparations available in the market. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Tiwari R.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upa Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwa Vid Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehm Complex | Saminathan M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh S.V.,Central Institute for Research on Goats CIRG
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Ashwagandha (Withania somngera) is a well known herb possessing several health benefits. The steroidal lactones (withanolides) obtained from its roots have been implicated in a wide range of therapeutic activities and maintaining general health Immunomodulation, combating infectious agents, anti-cancer and anti-epileptic, memory enhancer, to promote good physical and mental health, mood elevator, diuretic, general tonic and rejuvenator, stress reliever, cardiorespiratory endurance enhancer, anti-ageing, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and in common an effective adaptogen. Steroidal alkaloids and lactones are the active constituents of the plant. Withanolides as per theory occupies the receptor sites in the cell membrane thereby preventing the attachment and subsequent exertion of the effect of actual hormone. Withanolides have got analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity due to cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition propem. Ashwagandha enhances nitric oxide synthatase activity of the macrophages, which in turn increases the microbial killing power of these immune cells thereby enhancing the Cell Medated Immune (CMI) response. A glycoprotein Glycowithanolides (WSG) commonly known as W. somngera glycoprotein is responsible for antimicrobial activity. Milk supplemented with Ashwagandha has been repoded to increase total proteim and body weight and the plant alone helps in inducing tolerance and dependence. Its anti-stress and radiosensitization action; beneficial effects on cardiovascular system and sexual behavior; curative propedies agaimt neurodegenerative dseases and poisoning due to toxins and chemicals (includng snake venom) has made th~psl ant a treasure of nature. Thus the plant is an impodant component of many polyherbal preparatiom. Impodant for researchers and scientists is that biotechnologically advanced techniques; novel disciplines of bioinformatics and genomics can help in identifying and generating bioactive principles of the plant. All these salient health applications of this herb in biomedcine and veterinaq sciences are dscussed in th~sre view focusing its potent role in maintaining sound health, immunomodulatory effects, combating infections, therapeutic usages and other beneficial applicatiom. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

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