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Roman-Liu D.,Central Institute for Labour Protection National Research Institute CIOP PIB
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics | Year: 2016

The purpose of this article is to gather results of studies on the relationship between median frequency (MF) and mean power frequency (MPF) and the level of muscle contraction, and to use those results to discuss the differences in the trends according to factors related to measurement technique and subject. Twenty-one studies with 63 cases for upper limb muscles and nine studies with 31 cases for lower limb muscles were analysed. Most results showed an increase in parameters with an increased level of muscle contraction, only some studies showed a decrease. The influence on parameters of the level of muscle contraction and factors such as subjects, type of contraction, muscle length and electrodes was analysed for each muscle. It was concluded that when analysing the influence of different factors on MF and MPF, because those factors interact they should be considered together, not separately. © 2016 Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute CIOP-PIB. Source


Zradzinski P.,Central Institute for Labour Protection National Research Institute CIOP PIB
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics | Year: 2015

Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker’s body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields at various frequencies. Exposure of workers operating a plastic sealer have been taken as an example scenario of electromagnetic field exposure at the workplace for discussion of those difficulties in applying numerical simulations. The following difficulties in reliable numerical simulations of workers’ exposure to the electromagnetic field have been considered: workers’ body models (posture, dimensions, shape and grounding conditions), working environment models (objects most influencing electromagnetic field distribution) and an analysis of parameters for which exposure limitations are specified in international guidelines and standards. © 2015 Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB).. Source


Pawlowska Z.,Central Institute for Labour Protection National Research Institute CIOP PIB
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics | Year: 2015

Improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH) management is closely related to the development of OSH performance measurement, which should include OSH outcomes (e.g., occupational accidents), OSH inputs (including working conditions) and OSH-related activities. The indicators used to measure the OSH outcomes are often called lagging indicators, and the indicators of inputs and OSH activities are leading indicators. A study was conducted in 60 companies in order to determine what kinds of indicators were used for OSH performance measurement by companies with different levels of OSH performance. The results reveal that the indicators most commonly used in all of the companies are those related to ensuring compliance with the statutory requirements. At the same time, the leading indicators are much more often adopted in companies with a higher performance level. These companies also much more often monitor on a regular basis the indicators adopted for the evaluation of their OSH performance. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. Source


Jachowicz M.,Central Institute for Labour Protection National Research Institute CIOP PIB
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics | Year: 2015

Connectors are commonly found in personal equipment protecting against falls from a height. They are typically used outdoors and exposed to atmospheric factors, which can result in corrosion. This article presents the results of a study involving exposure of connectors to experimental corrosive media – neutral salt spray (NSS), acid salt spray (ASS), and seawater mist (for elements made of carbon steel and non-ferrous metals) – and to experimental conditions simulating the processes of pitting, stress, and intercrystalline corrosion (for equipment made of s‘tainless steel). The results indicate that the main effects of corrosion on connectors include impaired operation and reduced strength of their mobile elements. The article presents methods of testing connector operation developed for this purpose. Corrosive damage to connectors has been presented in relation to potential hazards for their users. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. Source


Pecillo M.,Central Institute for Labour Protection National Research Institute CIOP PIB
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics | Year: 2015

Workers’ working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers’ health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland’s Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers’ disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers’ sickness absence. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. Source

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