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Trushina N.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Levin M.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Mukherjee P.K.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Mukherjee P.K.,Central Institute for Cotton Research | Horwitz B.A.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: In fungi, environmental pH is an important signal for development, and successful host colonization depends on homeostasis. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the role of pH in fungal-fungal interactions. Species of Trichoderma grow as soil saprobes but many are primarily mycotrophic, using other fungi as hosts. Therefore, Trichoderma spp. are studied for their potential in biocontrol of plant diseases. Particularly in alkaline soil, pH is a critical limiting factor for these biofungicides, whose optimal growth pH is 4-6. Gaining an understanding of pH adaptability is an important step in broadening the activity spectrum of these economically important fungi. Results: We studied the pH-responsive transcription factor PacC by gene knockout and by introduction of a constitutively active allele (pacCc). ΔpacC mutants exhibited reduced growth at alkaline pH, while pacCc strains grew poorly at acidic pH. In plate confrontation assays ΔpacC mutants showed decreased ability to compete with the plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. The pacCc strain exhibited an overgrowth of R. solani that was comparable to the wild type, but was unable to overgrow S. rolfsii. To identify genes whose expression is dependent on pH and pacC, we designed oligonucleotide microarrays from the transcript models of the T. virens genome, and compared the transcriptomes of wild type and mutant cultures exposed to high or low pH. Transcript levels from several functional classes were dependent on pacC, on pH, or on both. Furthermore, the expression of a set of pacC-dependent genes was increased in the constitutively-active pacCc strain, and was pH-independent in some, but not all cases. Conclusions: PacC is important for biocontrol-related antagonism of other fungi by T. virens. As much as 5% of the transcriptome is pH-dependent, and of these genes, some 25% depend on pacC. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis and ion transport are among the relevant gene classes. We suggest that ΔpacC mutants may have lost their full biocontrol potential due to their inability to adapt to alkaline pH, to perceive ambient pH, or both. The results raise the novel possibility of genetically manipulating Trichoderma in order to improve adaptability and biocontrol at alkaline pH. © 2013 Trushina et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jeyarani S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Gulsar Banu J.,Central Institute for Cotton Research | Ramaraju K.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011

A survey for natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi of two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch was made in Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu, India during 2009. Occurrence oftwo entomopathogenic fungi viz., Cladospoirum cladosporioides (Fresenius) de Vries to the tune of 75.25, 87.00 and 96.75% and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill to the tune of 7.50, 12.00 and 5.25% were recorded on T. urticae infesting cowpea, red gram and okra, respectively. Both the fungal isolates were assessed for their pathogenicity against the spider mite, T. urticae and the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink commonly occurring on okra and cotton, using leaf disc bioassay. The results revealed that the fungus, C. cladosporioides was more effective followed by the B. bassiana against two spotted spider mite and for mealybug, B. bassiana was found to be more effective. C. cladosporioides and B. bassiana recorded the LC50 values of 4.30x106 and 5.27×106 conidia mL- 'with LT50 values of 63.80 and 110.30 h, respectively against T. urticae. Against P. marginatus, C. cladosporioides and B. bassianarecorded the LC50 values of 5.20xl07 and 3.60x107 conidia mL-1 with LT50 values of 191.04 and 176.64 h, respectively. This is the first record on natural infection of T. urticae by C. cladosporioides and B. bassiana in Tamil Nadu, India. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Hebbar K.B.,Central Institute for Cotton Research | Hebbar K.B.,Central Plantation Crops Research Institute | Venugopalan M.V.,Central Institute for Cotton Research | Prakash A.H.,Central Institute for Cotton Research | Aggarwal P.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

General circulation models (GCMs) project increases in the earth's surface air temperatures and other climate changes by the mid or late 21st century, and therefore crops such as cotton (Gossypium spp L.) will be grown in a much different environment than today. To understand the implications of climate change on cotton production in India, cotton production to the different scenarios (A2, B2 and A1B) of future climate was simulated using the simulation model Infocrop-cotton. The GCM projections showed a nearly 3.95, 3.20 and 1.85 °C rise in mean temperature of cotton growing regions of India for the A2, B2 and A1B scenarios, respectively. Simulation results using the Infocrop-cotton model indicated that seed cotton yield declined by 477 kg ha-1 for the A2 scenario and by 268 kg ha-1 for the B2 scenario; while it was non-significant for the A1B scenario. However, it became non-significant under elevated [CO2] levels across all the scenarios. The yield decline was higher in the northern zone over the southern zone. The impact of climate change on rainfed cotton which covers more than 60 % of the country's total cotton production area (mostly in the central zone) and is dependent on the monsoons is likely to be minimum, possibly on account of marginal increase in rainfall levels. Results of this assessment suggest that productivity in northern India may marginally decline; while in central and southern India, productivity may either remain the same or increase. At the national level, therefore, cotton production is unlikely to change with climate change. Adaptive measures such as changes in planting time and more responsive cultivars may further boost cotton production in India. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Prabhakar M.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Prasad Y.G.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Thirupathi M.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Sreedevi G.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2011

Detection of crop stress is one of the major applications of hyperspectral remote sensing in agriculture. Many studies have demonstrated the capability of remote sensing techniques for detection of nutrient stress on cotton with only few on pest damage but none so far on leafhopper (LH) severity. Subsequent to introduction of Bt cotton, leafhopper is emerging as a key pest in several countries. In view of its wide host range, geographical distribution and damage potential, a study was initiated to characterise leafhopper stress on cotton, identify sensitive bands, and derive hyperspectral vegetation indices specific to this pest. Cotton plants with varying levels of LH severity were selected from three locations across major cotton growing regions of India. About 57-58 cotton plants from each location exhibiting different levels of LH damage symptoms were selected. Reflectance measurements in the spectral range of 350-2500nm were made using hyperspectral radiometer. Simultaneously chlorophyll (Chl) and relative water content (RWC) were also estimated from the selected plants. Reflectance from healthy and leafhopper infested plants showed a significant difference in VIS and NIR regions. Decrease in Chl a pigment was more significant than Chl b in the infested plants and the ratio of Chl a/b showed a decreasing trend with increase in LH severity. Regression analysis revealed a significant linear relation between LH severity and Chl (R2=0.505**), and a similar fit was also observed for RWC (R2=0.402**). Plotting linear intensity curves between reflectance at each waveband with infestation grade resulted in six sensitive bands that exhibited maximum correlation at different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (376, 496, 691, 761, 1124 and 1457nm). Regression analysis of several ratio indices formulated with two or more of these sensitive bands led to the identification of new leaf hopper indices (LHI) with a potential to detect leafhopper severity. These new indices along with 20 other stress related hyperspectral indices compiled from literature were further tested for their ability to detect LH severity. Two novel indices LHI 2 and LHI 4 proposed in this study showed significantly high coefficients of determination across locations (R2 range 0.521 to 0.825**) and hence have the potential use for detection of leafhopper severity in cotton. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Gajbhiye A.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University | Rai A.R.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University | Meshram S.U.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University | Dongre A.B.,Central Institute for Cotton Research
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Present investigation is based on the isolation of Bacillus subtilis from cotton rhizosphere and their evaluation as biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum. The production of extracellular hydrolytic enzyme was studied for determining the antagonism. 43% of 21 isolates were identified under the B. subtilis group on the basis of biochemical characterization. 38% isolates showed competitive activity against Fusarium oxysporum and exhibit more than 50% mycelial inhibition in dual culture bioassay. The pot assay of cotton by seed treatment and soil amendment technique under green house condition showed the competent activity of the isolates in preventing the wilting of cotton seedlings due to F. oxysporum infection. SVI values of 30day old seedlings indicated that the soil inoculation with B. subtilis BP-2 and seed treatment with B. subtilis BP-9 significantly promoted the growth of cotton seedlings. RAPD profiling revealed the diversity in the Bacillussubtilis group, ranging from 10 to 32%. The discriminative pattern among the isolates belonging to the same species was validated by 16S rDNA partial sequencing which identified them into four different strains of B. subtilis. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

Tuteja O.P.,Central Institute for Cotton Research | Banga M.,Central Institute for Cotton Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

The effects of cytoplasm on productivity and heterosis for seed cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield and its component was studied in 64 hybrids. Four male sterile (A) lines CMS F 505, CMS CSH 2379, CMS LRA 5166 and CMS Jhorar and their corresponding maintainer (B) lines were crossed with eight restorer lines in a line × tester design. The 64 crosses and a standard check, CSHH 198, were grown in a randomized block design with three replications during 2008-09. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes. Cytoplasmic effects were estimated by comparing A × R and B × R hybrids combinations. Both positive and negative cytoplasmic effects were observed for all the characters studied. On the basis of mean of two groups of hybrids, it was revealed that cytoplasm significantly decreased number of bolls/plant, 2.5% span length, maturity coefficient, micronaire value and fibre strength as compared to normal cytoplasm. The estimation of standard heterosis of individual crosses showed that Gossypium G. harknessii cytoplasm imparting sterility also influenced heterosis in most of the crosses. Among CMS-based hybrids, CMS Jhorar × CIR 920 P1-3 (1 574 kg/ha), and among conventional hybrids F 505 × CIR 526 P2 (1 944 kg/ha) were found to be highest yielding. The range of heterosis varied from -8.8 to 29.9 % in conventional hybrids while heterosis range of CMS cross combinations varied from -5.2 to 5.2 % for seed cotton yield. The combination, CMS F 505 × CIR 126 P2-1 recorded the highest number of bolls (60.9), and was heterotic by a magnitude of 25.0%, while the highest heterotic effect was observed in F 505 × CIR 97 P3-4 (37.9%) in conventional crosses. Similar effect of G. harknessii cytoplasm has been observed for other characters studied. It is thus the interaction of particular cytoplasm with the nuclear genes that affects performance. It would be more appropriate to test the CMS lines in different combinations rather than converting the female parent of released hybrids into male sterile lines.

Behere G.T.,University of Melbourne | Behere G.T.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Tay W.T.,CSIRO | Russell D.A.,University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Helicoverpa armigera is an important pest of cotton and other agricultural crops in the Old World. Its wide host range, high mobility and fecundity, and the ability to adapt and develop resistance against all common groups of insecticides used for its management have exacerbated its pest status. An understanding of the population genetic structure in H. armigera under Indian agricultural conditions will help ascertain gene flow patterns across different agricultural zones. This study inferred the population genetic structure of Indian H. armigera using five Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC)-PCR markers. Nested alternative EPIC markers detected moderate null allele frequencies (4.3% to 9.4%) in loci used to infer population genetic structure but the apparently genome-wide heterozygote deficit suggests in-breeding or a Wahlund effect rather than a null allele effect. Population genetic analysis of the 26 populations suggested significant genetic differentiation within India but especially in cotton-feeding populations in the 2006-07 cropping season. In contrast, overall pair-wise FST estimates from populations feeding on food crops indicated no significant population substructure irrespective of cropping seasons. A Baysian cluster analysis was used to assign the genetic make-up of individuals to likely membership of population clusters. Some evidence was found for four major clusters with individuals in two populations from cotton in one year (from two populations in northern India) showing especially high homogeneity. Taken as a whole, this study found evidence of population substructure at host crop, temporal and spatial levels in Indian H. armigera, without, however, a clear biological rationale for these structures being evident. © 2013 Behere et al.

Raju A.R.,Central Institute for Cotton Research | Thakare S.K.,Central Institute for Cotton Research
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2012

A field experiment was conducted during 2008, 2009 to study the effect of nutrient management on fertilizer use efficiency (FUE), red leaves and fibre quality in multiple pickings of Bt hybrid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) at Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur (21° 09' N, 79° 09' E). Senescence was faster in Bt hybrid cotton in mid-October, 2008 with deficient rainfall in shallow soils. Soil application of MgSO4 @ 25 kg/ha /3year in shal-low soils significantly reduced the formation of red leaves in October. Cell sap sucking jassids and thrips on Bt hy-brid cotton (Bunny) leaves caused N deficiency and accumulation of anthocyanin in August month. Higher FUE was observed in non Bt hybrid cotton compared to Bt hybrid cotton. Fertilizer response, FUE and profitability was significantly improved by application of 150% RDF or ZnSO4 @ 25 kg/ha/3year + MgSO4 @ 25 kg/ha /3year + bo-rax @10 kg/ha /3year + sulphur @ 20 kg/ha/2 year together. Bt hybrid cotton was significantly not profitable with lesser returns and lower yields than non Bt isogenic line of NCS 145 under adverse weather conditions and resur-gence of sucking pests. Bundle strength tenacity (g/tex) at 3.2 mm guage and fineness were not significantly af-fected across pickings, both were 15%-18% shortage of spinning norms.

Dongre A.B.,Central Institute for Cotton Research | Raut M.P.,Central Institute for Cotton Research | Bhandarkar M.R.,Central Institute for Cotton Research | Meshram K.J.,Central Institute for Cotton Research
Indian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Gossypium hirsutum F 1 hybrid Phule-388 and it's parents RHCb-001 as male and RHC-006 as female were studied for identification and genetic purity testing with three PCR based molecular markers. Twenty RAPD primers, 19 ISSR primers and 33 cotton microsatellite loci were used for the analysis. RAPD primers, OPA-08 and OPA-11, were found to be useful in differentiating parents and hybrid. Two ISSR primers, IS-10 and IS-12, were identified. Two male specific amplicons of 1200 bp, 1500 bp and 1000 bp, 1300 bp each were also present in the hybrid. Microsatellite loci, JESPR-151 and JESPR-152 were found to be heteroallelic for parents. JESPR-151 identified male specific 140 bp repeat and female specific 180 bp repeat while JESPR-152 detected one male and female specific repeats of 120 bp and 180 bp, respectively. Results indicated that using all the three markers-RAPD, ISSRs and Microsatellites in combination is more reliable than using the three in isolation for identification and testing of genetic purity of cotton hybrids.

Rathinavel K.,Central Institute for Cotton Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2015

Experiments conducted to elucidate the impact of polymer coating on viability of cotton seeds at Central Institute for Cotton Research, Regional Station, Coimbatore, India revealed that seeds coated with polymer "polycote" or " polyloc" @ 3 ml kg-1 + thiram @ 2.5 g kg-1+ super red @ 5 ml kg-1 + cruiser @ 5 g kg-1 packed in polythene bag (700 gauge ) and stored at ambient condition for 26 months was found superior in preserving seed quality viz., seed viability expressed in terms of germination and seedling vigour over untreated seeds. The percentage loss of viability was less rapid and at 26th month of storage it was 70% where as in control 56%. Less seed infection, high seedling vigour and field emergence was recorded in coated seeds.

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