Central Institute for Arid Horticulture

Bīkāner, India

Central Institute for Arid Horticulture

Bīkāner, India
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Shukla A.K.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Shukla A.K.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

An experiment was conducted in 'NA7' cultivar of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) to assess whether pre-harvest foliar application of Ca (as calcium carbonate), B (as borax) individually or their combination influences physiological problems (poor fruit set, blossom and fruit drop, deformation of fruits etc.), fruit yield and quality or not. Treatments consisted of Ca as CaCO 3 at 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, boron as borax at 0.2%, 0.4% 0.6%, Ca+B (mixed) 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% and plants sprayed with water served as the control. Treatments were applied five times on full grown tree of Indian gooseberry cultivar 'NA7' at pre bloom, full bloom, at fruit set initiation, pea stage (fruit development stage) and pre-harvest stage (one month before harvest). Results indicated that fruit harvested from plants which were sprayed with Ca+B 0.4% had significantly lesser incidence of fruit deformation (0.8%), blossom and fruit drop (32.6%) than in the plants kept under control (2.8% and 79.2%, respectively). The maximum yield (158.6 kg/tree) was recorded with the application of calcium carbonate + borax 0.4%, while minimum was recorded under control (105.2 kg/tree). In totality all the treatments have increased the fruit weight, fruit size, number of fruit/shoot, and quality of fruits as compared to control. The maximum dry matter (20.2%), juice content (78.5%), vitamin C (626.49 mg/100 g) was recorded with calcium carbonate + borax 0.4%. Similarly, it was also observed that such fruit (sprayed with Ca+B 0.4%) were bold, had slightly higher TSS (16.5%) at harvest than those in control (15.1%). Studies indicated that preharvest foliar application of Ca+B is quite useful for reducing the incidence of physiological problems and getting higher marketable yield in 'NA7' Indian gooseberry. Ca+B 0.4% significantly increased fruit size, fruit length and breadth. Calcium carbonate at concentration of 0.4% significantly reduced the fruit drop and increased the retention of blossom and deformed fruit.

Reddy S V.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Reddy S V.R.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Sharma R.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

The shelf-life of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits is only 5 to 6 days under ambient conditions, which can be increased efficiently, if the rates of biological activities and/or changes are reduced by pre and/or post-harvest treatments. Hence, three different concentrations (75, 150 and 200 ppm) of salicylic acid (SA) were applied as pre-harvest treatments to Amrapali mango fruits, one week prior to their commercial harvest. Later the fruits were harvested and stored at ambient conditions (30±5°C and 50±5 % RH). Among various concentrations of SA, the SA (200 ppm) was found to be most effective in delaying the ripening cum senescence processes through suppression of ethylene production rate (0.20 μl C2H4/kg/h) and helped in maintaining the post-harvest quality through better retention of soluble solid concentrates (SSC) (27.72 °B), titratable acidity (0.53 %), ascorbic acid (32.52 mg/100g) and total antioxidant content (11.85 μmol Trolox/g Fresh Weight ) etc. The SA treatment was also found to effectively influence the pectin methylesterase activity (0.167 μmol acid/min) as well as the lipid peroxidation (2.26 nmol/g Fresh weight) during storage in order to extend the fruit shelf-life by 3 days compared to the control fruits. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.

Liu Y.,Michigan State University | Singh D.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Nair M.G.,Michigan State University | Nair M.G.,King Saud University
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2012

The arid plant Prosopis cineraria (Fabaceae) is known as Khejri in India or the golden tree of Indian deserts. The dried pods are consumed as a vegetable and leaves as traditional medicine to cure a wide range of diseases in the state of Rajasthan, India. The pods of this plant have not been investigated for their bioactive components, hence we have done so in this study. The dried pods were boiled with water to afford the aqueous extract. Extraction of the residue gave methanolic extract. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and -2) inhibitory activities of extracts and major compounds present in the bioactive extracts were then determined. Purification of bioactive extracts yielded compounds 1-7. The absorbance of 1-7 at 570. nm ranged between 0.15 and 0.45 at 50μg/mL whereas vitamin C and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) at 25μg/mL gave an absorbance of 0.5 in the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. At 25μg/mL concentration, compounds 1-7 inhibited LPO, COX-1 and -2 enzymes between the ranges of 15-87%, 21-67% and 16-59%, respectively. This is the first report of the chemical and biological activities of the edible part of this plant. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Krishna H.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Parashar A.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Twenty-eight varieties of Indian jujube were estimated for various health-promoting compounds such as ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, flavanol, O-dihydric phenol and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was also measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The ascorbic acid content varied from 47.81 to 160.12mg/100g, total phenolics from 48.69 to 196.34mg/100g, total flavonoids from 60.32 to 173.11mg/100g, flavanol from 25.21 to 70.59mg/100g and O-dihydric phenol from 5.03 to 19.26mg/100g fresh weight. The average antioxidant activities were 1.6-6.33 and 1.22-5.49μM TE/g as determined by the CUPRAC and FRAP assays, respectively. Likewise, according to the results obtained, cv. ZG-3 was found to exhibit the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity followed by Katha Phal and Thar Sevika. The study also revealed a considerable amount of variation among the genotypes tested in relation to their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Practical Applications: Numerous studies have shown that fruits are a rich source of diverse nutrients and non-nutrient molecules, many of which display antioxidant properties. Indian jujube or ber is an important fruit crop of the hot arid regions in India as it forms an integral part of the life of the locals as a source of nutrition and other purposes. It is therefore important to assess different Indian jujube varieties for the content of various antioxidants in order to better identify their overall nutritional value and to encourage its increased consumption by the general public. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

An infestation of Homoeocerus variabilis Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on khejri, Prosopis cineraria, was first noticed in 2010 at the Experimental Farm of Central Institute for Arid Horticulture and other fields of Bikaner district, Rajasthan, India. The maximum incidence was observed in December (66.7%) and minimum in June (16.7%). The number of this bug ranged between 27.3 and 222.9 adults per plant. This species is characterized by an ochraceous body with a broad red basal fascia on the pronotum between the humeral angles, small pale scutellum, antennae 4-segmented, the basal part of second and third segment is pale yellow, third segment flattened at the tip and fourth segment is the shortest. The mean body lengths of the male and female adult vary and were recorded as 12.2 mm and 15.5 mm, respectively.

Krishna H.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Singh D.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2013

A protocol for in vitro propagation of lasora (Cordia myxa Roxb.) was standardized using nodal segments. Single node segments, prepared from the new vegetative shoots, were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mgl-1 kinetin and BAP alone or in combination with 0.01 mgl-1 NAA. The best response (93.6%) was observed with 4.0 mgl-1 kinetin. The regenerated shoots from nodal segments were excised aseptically and transferred onto the rooting medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l each of NAA and IBA along with 750 mgl-1 activated charcoal was found superior (90.6%) over the other hormonal combinations for rooting response. Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during ex vitro hardening stage resulted in higher survival (97%) and improved growth of micro-propagated lasora plantlets.

Haldhar S.M.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Choudhary B.R.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Bhargava R.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Gurjar K.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Host plant resistance is an important component of integrated pest management of the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). Various phenotypic traits including length of ovary pubescence, rind hardness, rind thickness, fruit length, fibre content, and fruit diameter and alleochemical traits including flavonoid content, ascorbic acid, free amino acid, tannins content and phenols content of fruit were studied on fifteen varieties/genotypes of ridge gourd, Luffa acutangula in relation to resistance against B. cucurbitae under field conditions in the hot arid region of India. Significant differences were found in tested varieties/genotypes for fruit infestation and larval density per fruit. The varieties/genotypes AHRG-57 (15.92%), AHRG-29 (17.67%) and Pusa Nasdar (18.27%) were found resistant; AHRG-41 (21.77%), AHRG-35 (25.38%), Arka Sujata (30.08%), AHRG-36 (34.8%), S. Manjari (39.67%) and S. Uphar (42.3%) were moderately resistant; AHRG-30 (55.67%), AHRG-42 (57.63%) and AHRG-33 (57.67%) were susceptible AHRG-47 (77.75%) and AHRG-31 (79.72) were found the highly susceptible varieties/genotypes to melon fruit fly infestation. A significant positive correlation (r=0.96) was also observed between percent fruit infestation and larval density per fruit. The percent fruit infestation and larval density had significant positive correlation with fruit length and diameter and negative correlation with length of ovary pubescence, rind hardness and rind thickness. Based on Kaiser Normalization method, two principal components (PCs) were extracted explaining cumulative variation of 90% in melon fruit fly infestation and length of ovary pubescence, rind thickness, flavonoid content, ascorbic acid, free amino acid, tannins content, and phenols content were the reliable variables for characterization of resistance. Ridge gourd varieties/genotypes AHRG-57, Pusa Nasdar and AHRG-29 were classified as resistant to B. cucurbitae and these could be used in future breeding program as resistant sources. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Awasthi O.P.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Singh I.S.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2010

A study was conducted in arid region of western Rajasthan to determine the cumulative effect of leaf litter of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) and pomegranate (Punica granatum) plantations on the changes of soil nutrients below the tree canopy and their interspaces at surface (0-15 cm) and sub-surface (15-60 cm) depth. The results of the study showed that both the fruit species exerted gain in the nutrient contents in the soil below the canopy area and their interspaces. The beneficial effect of Ziziphus mauritiana in improving the soil nutrient status was however, more pronounced. Ten year after plantation of ber and pomegranate, organic carbon below the canopy increased from 0.03 to 0.39% and 0.03 to 0.25% in ber and pomegranate, respectively. Available P increased from 9.16 to 12.35; 9.16 to 10.67 kg ha1 and exchangeable cations [cmol (p+)/kg] (Ca2+ 5.1 to 8.0; 5.1 to 6.8, Mg2+ 1.2 to 2.0; 1.2 to 2.0 and K+0.3 to 2.3; 0.3 to 1.9) under the canopy area of ber and pomegranate which entails the benefits of plantations in the development of dune soils. Gain in nutrient content between the interspace although was lower than the canopy area but was higher than control. Nutrient returns through litterfall followed the order N > K > Ca > P.

Maheshwari S.K.,Central Institute For Arid Horticulture | Choudhary B.R.,Central Institute For Arid Horticulture
Vegetos | Year: 2015

Seventeen bottle gourd genotypes such as Pusa Naveen, Pusa Samridhi, Udaipur Local, Pusa Santushti, Pusa Sandesh, PSPL, Chomu Local, Azad Harit, Panchmahal Local, Arka Bahar, Thar Samridhi, PN-22, DBG-5, DBG-6, Jodhpur Local, IC-567538 and Sriganganagar Local were evaluated for resistance against Alternaria blight during rainy season of 2011 and 2012 under field conditions. Among them, 06 varieties such as Pusa Naveen, Pusa Samridhi, Pusa Sandesh, Pusa Santushti, Arka Bahar and PSPL showed moderately resistant having 4.87–8.62% disease severity and 10 genotypes were categorized as moderately susceptible (13.0 to 24.75%) while one germplasm ‘Chomu Local’ proved susceptible against this disease. © 2015, Society for Plant Research. All rights reserved.

Haldhar S.M.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Singh R.S.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

The infestation of Dictyla cheriani (Drake) (Hemiptera: Tingidae) on Indian cherry (Cordia myxa L.), was noticed in 2010 at the Experimental Farm of Central Institute for Arid Horticulture and other fields of Bikaner district, Rajasthan, India. The maximum incidence was observed in October (51.67% on bold and 76.67% on small seeded plants) and minimum was in January (11.67% on bold and 21.67% on small seeded plants). The number of this lace bug ranged between (0.5 to 8.8 on bold and 4.5 to 25.97 on small seeded plants) nymphs and adults per leaves. This species is characterised by body oblong, pale testaceous with brownish or fuscous markings, with collar and hood yellowish brown, body beneath reddish dark with thoracic sterna darker. Antenna is yellowish brown; 1/3 part of 4 segment blackish. Antenna is rather slender, segmental measurements: I, 0.12 mm; II, 0.09 mm; III, 0.80 mm; IV, 0.22 mm. The mean body lengths of the male and female adult vary and were recorded as 2.17 mm and 2.34 mm, respectively.

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