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An infestation of Homoeocerus variabilis Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on khejri, Prosopis cineraria, was first noticed in 2010 at the Experimental Farm of Central Institute for Arid Horticulture and other fields of Bikaner district, Rajasthan, India. The maximum incidence was observed in December (66.7%) and minimum in June (16.7%). The number of this bug ranged between 27.3 and 222.9 adults per plant. This species is characterized by an ochraceous body with a broad red basal fascia on the pronotum between the humeral angles, small pale scutellum, antennae 4-segmented, the basal part of second and third segment is pale yellow, third segment flattened at the tip and fourth segment is the shortest. The mean body lengths of the male and female adult vary and were recorded as 12.2 mm and 15.5 mm, respectively.

Liu Y.,Michigan State University | Singh D.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Nair M.G.,Michigan State University | Nair M.G.,King Saud University
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2012

The arid plant Prosopis cineraria (Fabaceae) is known as Khejri in India or the golden tree of Indian deserts. The dried pods are consumed as a vegetable and leaves as traditional medicine to cure a wide range of diseases in the state of Rajasthan, India. The pods of this plant have not been investigated for their bioactive components, hence we have done so in this study. The dried pods were boiled with water to afford the aqueous extract. Extraction of the residue gave methanolic extract. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and -2) inhibitory activities of extracts and major compounds present in the bioactive extracts were then determined. Purification of bioactive extracts yielded compounds 1-7. The absorbance of 1-7 at 570. nm ranged between 0.15 and 0.45 at 50μg/mL whereas vitamin C and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) at 25μg/mL gave an absorbance of 0.5 in the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. At 25μg/mL concentration, compounds 1-7 inhibited LPO, COX-1 and -2 enzymes between the ranges of 15-87%, 21-67% and 16-59%, respectively. This is the first report of the chemical and biological activities of the edible part of this plant. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Shukla A.K.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Shukla A.K.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

An experiment was conducted in 'NA7' cultivar of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) to assess whether pre-harvest foliar application of Ca (as calcium carbonate), B (as borax) individually or their combination influences physiological problems (poor fruit set, blossom and fruit drop, deformation of fruits etc.), fruit yield and quality or not. Treatments consisted of Ca as CaCO 3 at 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, boron as borax at 0.2%, 0.4% 0.6%, Ca+B (mixed) 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% and plants sprayed with water served as the control. Treatments were applied five times on full grown tree of Indian gooseberry cultivar 'NA7' at pre bloom, full bloom, at fruit set initiation, pea stage (fruit development stage) and pre-harvest stage (one month before harvest). Results indicated that fruit harvested from plants which were sprayed with Ca+B 0.4% had significantly lesser incidence of fruit deformation (0.8%), blossom and fruit drop (32.6%) than in the plants kept under control (2.8% and 79.2%, respectively). The maximum yield (158.6 kg/tree) was recorded with the application of calcium carbonate + borax 0.4%, while minimum was recorded under control (105.2 kg/tree). In totality all the treatments have increased the fruit weight, fruit size, number of fruit/shoot, and quality of fruits as compared to control. The maximum dry matter (20.2%), juice content (78.5%), vitamin C (626.49 mg/100 g) was recorded with calcium carbonate + borax 0.4%. Similarly, it was also observed that such fruit (sprayed with Ca+B 0.4%) were bold, had slightly higher TSS (16.5%) at harvest than those in control (15.1%). Studies indicated that preharvest foliar application of Ca+B is quite useful for reducing the incidence of physiological problems and getting higher marketable yield in 'NA7' Indian gooseberry. Ca+B 0.4% significantly increased fruit size, fruit length and breadth. Calcium carbonate at concentration of 0.4% significantly reduced the fruit drop and increased the retention of blossom and deformed fruit.

Reddy S V.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Reddy S V.R.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Sharma R.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

The shelf-life of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits is only 5 to 6 days under ambient conditions, which can be increased efficiently, if the rates of biological activities and/or changes are reduced by pre and/or post-harvest treatments. Hence, three different concentrations (75, 150 and 200 ppm) of salicylic acid (SA) were applied as pre-harvest treatments to Amrapali mango fruits, one week prior to their commercial harvest. Later the fruits were harvested and stored at ambient conditions (30±5°C and 50±5 % RH). Among various concentrations of SA, the SA (200 ppm) was found to be most effective in delaying the ripening cum senescence processes through suppression of ethylene production rate (0.20 μl C2H4/kg/h) and helped in maintaining the post-harvest quality through better retention of soluble solid concentrates (SSC) (27.72 °B), titratable acidity (0.53 %), ascorbic acid (32.52 mg/100g) and total antioxidant content (11.85 μmol Trolox/g Fresh Weight ) etc. The SA treatment was also found to effectively influence the pectin methylesterase activity (0.167 μmol acid/min) as well as the lipid peroxidation (2.26 nmol/g Fresh weight) during storage in order to extend the fruit shelf-life by 3 days compared to the control fruits. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.

Krishna H.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Parashar A.,Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Twenty-eight varieties of Indian jujube were estimated for various health-promoting compounds such as ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, flavanol, O-dihydric phenol and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was also measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The ascorbic acid content varied from 47.81 to 160.12mg/100g, total phenolics from 48.69 to 196.34mg/100g, total flavonoids from 60.32 to 173.11mg/100g, flavanol from 25.21 to 70.59mg/100g and O-dihydric phenol from 5.03 to 19.26mg/100g fresh weight. The average antioxidant activities were 1.6-6.33 and 1.22-5.49μM TE/g as determined by the CUPRAC and FRAP assays, respectively. Likewise, according to the results obtained, cv. ZG-3 was found to exhibit the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity followed by Katha Phal and Thar Sevika. The study also revealed a considerable amount of variation among the genotypes tested in relation to their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Practical Applications: Numerous studies have shown that fruits are a rich source of diverse nutrients and non-nutrient molecules, many of which display antioxidant properties. Indian jujube or ber is an important fruit crop of the hot arid regions in India as it forms an integral part of the life of the locals as a source of nutrition and other purposes. It is therefore important to assess different Indian jujube varieties for the content of various antioxidants in order to better identify their overall nutritional value and to encourage its increased consumption by the general public. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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