Central Institute

Ludhiāna, India

Central Institute

Ludhiāna, India
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Corsaro D.,Institute of Microbiology | Michel R.,Central Institute | Walochnik J.,Medical University of Vienna | Muller K.-D.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Greub G.,Institute of Microbiology
European Journal of Protistology | Year: 2010

An amoeba isolated from an aquatic biotope, identified morphologically as Saccamoeba limax, was found harbouring mutualistic rod-shaped gram-negative bacteria. During their cultivation on agar plates, a coinfection also by lysis-inducing chlamydia-like organisms was found in some subpopulations of that amoeba. .Here we provide a molecular-based identification of both the amoeba host and the two bacterial endosymbionts. Analysis of the 18S rRNA gene revealed that this strain is the sister-group to Glaeseria, for which we proposed the name Saccamoeba lacustris. The rod-shaped endosymbiont was identified as a member of Variovorax paradoxus group (Comamonadaceae, Beta-Proteobacteria). No growth on bacteriological agars was recorded, hence this symbiont might be strictly intracellular. The chlamydia-like parasite was unable to infect Acanthamoeba and other amoebae in coculture, showing high host specificity. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA indicated that it is a new member of the family Parachlamydiaceae (order Chlamydiales), for which we proposed the name 'Candidatus Metachlamydia lacustris'. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Punetha P.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Rao V.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Sharma S.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Sharma S.K.,Central Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

Fifteen chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) genotypes were assessed for their performance under mid hill conditions of Garhwal Himalaya during 2009-10. Uniform healthy suckers were planted at a spacing of 30 cm×20 cm in randomized block design with three replications. Significant differences were obtained among the genotypes for all morphological and floral characters studied. Genotype Saifali recorded maximum (149.71 cm) plant height, followed by Terry (132.92 cm) but plant spread was maximum in genotype Paris White (45.04 cm), followed by Suneel (44.50 cm), however it was minimum in Saifali (25.96 cm). Genotype Paris White produced maximum number of primary (15.16) and secondary branches (19.16)/plant while minimum, i e 4.41 and 8.16 was recorded in genotype Saifali, respectively. Earliest bud burst (9.33 days) was observed in genotype Red Queen, whereas genotype Charming was late (30.00 days). The highest number of flowers/branch (10.43) was produced by genotype White Anemone followed by Gauri (9.08) and Appu (7.66), but number of flowers/plant was higher (301.00) in Paris White and minimum (66.33) was recorded with genotype Suneel. Extended period of vase life was recorded in Gauri (24.66 days), followed by Shanti (22.00 days), while it was low with Red Queen (5.33 days). Keeping these characters in view, genotypes White Anemone, Shanti and Charming were found to be highly suitable to grow under these conditions for cut and loose flowers.

Washiya Y.,Central Institute | Nishikawa T.,Central Institute | Fujino T.,Central Institute
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2015

In order to clarify the functional difference of coffee bean extracts which non-degassed or degassed, we examined the effect on mouse immune function of the roasted coffee bean extracts degassed for 0-96 h. The commercial roasted coffee beans are commonly degassed. We previously found that large quantity of volatile compounds in coffee extracts were decreased by the degassing. In this study, we found that the extracts of nondegassed roasted coffee beans were enhanced serum IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-12 production of mice, in comparison with other degassed coffee. Moreover, we found that 2 kinds of sulfur compounds and 3 kinds of ketone compounds which were decreased by the degassing, enhanced serum IFN-γ production of mice. In addition, IL-2 production was enhanced by 2 kinds of sulfur compounds and 2 kinds of pyrazine compounds, and IL-12 production was enhanced by 4 kinds of pyrazine compounds. These results concluded that the roasted coffee beans which was shortened degassing time within 30 hours, hold enough volatile compounds for enhancing serum IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-12 production of mice. © Copyright 2015, Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology.

Takeuchi M.,National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation | Higashino A.,Kyoto University | Takeuchi K.,National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation | Hori Y.,University of Tokyo | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Comprehensive analysis of alterations in gene expression along with neoplastic transformation in human cells provides valuable information about the molecular mechanisms underlying transformation. To further address these questions, we performed whole transcriptome analysis to the human mesenchymal stem cell line, UE6E7T-3, which was immortalized with hTERT and human papillomavirus type 16 E6/E7 genes, in association with progress of transformation in these cells. At early stages of culture, UE6E7T-3 cells preferentially lost one copy of chromosome 13, as previously described; in addition, tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, and apoptosis-activating genes were overexpressed. After the loss of chromosome 13, additional aneuploidy and genetic alterations that drove progressive transformation, were observed. At this stage, the cell line expressed oncogenes as well as genes related to anti-apoptotic functions, cell-cycle progression, and chromosome instability (CIN); these pro-tumorigenic changes were concomitant with a decrease in tumor suppressor gene expression. At later stages after prolong culture, the cells exhibited chromosome translocations, acquired anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice, (sarcoma) and exhibited increased expression of genes encoding growth factor and DNA repair genes, and decreased expression of adhesion genes. In particular, glypican-5(GPC5), which encodes a cell-surface proteoglycan that might be a biomarker for sarcoma, was expressed at high levels in association with transformation. Patched (Ptc1), the cell surface receptor for hedgehog (Hh) signaling, was also significantly overexpressed and co-localized with GPC5. Knockdown of GPC5 expression decreased cell proliferation, suggesting that it plays a key role in growth in U3-DT cells (transformants derived from UE6E7T-3 cells) through the Hh signaling pathway. Thus, the UE6E7T-3 cell culture model is a useful tool for assessing the functional contribution of genes showed by expression profiling to the neoplastic transformation of human fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). © 2015 Takeuchi et al.

Baek K.-S.,Sungkyunkwan University | Ahn S.,Central Institute | Lee J.,Chung - Ang University | Kim J.H.,Sungkyunkwan University | And 8 more authors.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Aripiprazole (ARI) is a commonly prescribed medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To date, there have been no studies regarding the molecular pathological and immunotoxicological profiling of aripiprazole. Thus, in the present study, we prepared two different formulas of aripiprazole [Free base crystal of aripiprazole (ARPGCB) and cocrystal of aripiprazole (GCB3004)], and explored their effects on the patterns of survival and apoptosis-regulatory proteins under acute toxicity and cytotoxicity test conditions. Furthermore, we also evaluated the modulatory activity of the different formulations on the immunological responses in macrophages primed by various stimulators such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pam3CSK, and poly(I:C) via toll-like receptor 4(TLR4), TLR2, and TLR3 pathways, respectively. In liver, both ARPGCB and GCB3004 produced similar toxicity profiles. In particular, these two formulas exhibited similar phospho-protein profiling of p65/nuclear factor (NF)-κB, c-Jun/activator protein (AP)-1, ERK, JNK, p38, caspase 3, and bcl-2 in brain. In contrast, the patterns of these phospho-proteins were variable in other tissues. Moreover, these two formulas did not exhibit any cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cells. Finally, the two formulations at available in vivo concentrations did not block nitric oxide (NO) production from activated macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS, pam3CSK, or poly(I:C), nor did they alter the morphological changes of the activated macrophages. Taken together, our present work, as a comparative study of two different formulas of aripiprazole, suggests that these two formulas can be used to achieve similar functional activation of brain proteins related to cell survival and apoptosis and immunotoxicological activities of macrophages. Copyright © Korean J Physiol Pharmacol.

Nakamura T.,National Hospital Organization | Yamada S.,National Hospital Organization | Yamada S.,Central Institute | Yoshioka T.,National Hospital Organization
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

Background: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), intensively studied in adult patients by several investigators, is suggested to cause potentially fatal conditions such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, little is known about the role of this protein in neonates. Methods: In total, 173 full-term neonates were divided into 4 groups according to mode of delivery: scheduled cesarean section (group E, n = 67), unscheduled cesarean section (group ER, n = 10), normal delivery (group N, n = 64) and other modes of vaginal delivery (group CN, n = 32). HMGB1 concentration in umbilical cord blood and plasma samples collected 5. days after birth were compared among these 4 groups. We also attempted to determine a reference value for HMGB1 concentrations in neonates. Results: The HMGB1 reference value in neonates was 2.0-35.3. ng/ml in groups E and N (n = 131). The concentration was significantly higher in group ER than in group E (P = 0.00022), and was also higher in group CN than in group N (P = 0.00721). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to determine a reference value for HMGB1 concentrations in neonates. We also revealed significantly elevated HMGB1 concentrations in association with ischemic reperfusion injury caused by certain delivery modes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Nadulski T.,University Hospital Charite | Bleeck S.,University Hospital Charite | Schrader J.,Central Institute | Bork W.-R.,Forensic Science Institute Berlin | Pragst F.,University Hospital Charite
Forensic Science International | Year: 2010

11-Nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (THC-COOEt) can be presumed to be a mixed metabolite formed during combined consumption of cannabinoids and alcohol. In order to examine this hypothesis, THC-COOEt and its deuterated analogue D3-THC-COOEt were synthesized as reference substance and internal standard from the corresponding carboxylic acids and diazoethane and methods were developed for the sensitive detection of THC-COOEt in plasma and hair based on gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry after silylation with N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) as well as tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS-MS) after derivatization with pentafluoropropionyl anhydride. The methods were applied for THC-COOEt determination to plasma samples from 22 drunk driving cases which contained both ethanol (0.30-2.16 mg/g) and THC-COOH (15-252 ng/mL) as well as to 12 hair samples from drug fatalities which were both positive for THC (0.09-2.04 ng/mg) and fatty acid ethyl esters as markers of chronic alcohol abuse (0.70-6.3 ng/mg). In none of these samples THC-COOEt could be found with limits of detection of 0.3 ng/mL in plasma and 2 pg/mg in hair in 11 samples using GC-NCI-MS and 0.2 pg/mg in one sample using GC-NCI-MS. Therefore, the use of this compound as a marker for combined cannabis and alcohol consumption could not be achieved. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

News Article | February 28, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The first recorded evidence of manual therapy was the writings of Hippocrates (460-335 B.C.), Greek physician known as the “father of medicine”. Hippocrates described manipulating a “Gibbus” or prominent vertebrae back into place by using his hand, foot, or body weight. In the 18th and 19th centuries bone setting was common practice in Great Brittan, a skill passed on from one family member to another. Bone setters had no medical training and believed they were putting little bones back into place. Per Hendrik Ling was a Swedish physiologist who in 1813 founded the Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics and taught corrective exercise and different forms of manipulation and massage. Practitioners came from all over the world to learn his techniques including Mary McMillan, the first president of the American Physical Therapy Association. Since its inception, manual therapy has been an integral part of the physical therapy profession. Manual Therapy is a “hands on” approach used to evaluate and treat muscles, tendons, ligaments, connective tissue, nerves, and joints that have become restricted in mobility as a result of acute injury, repetitive overuse, or poor posture. Techniques include but are not limited to manipulation, mobilization, and different forms of massage. Manipulation and mobilization are skilled passive movements to joints or related soft tissues at varying speeds and amplitudes including a high velocity low amplitude thrust. An audible pop is often heard when a thrust manipulation is performed. The quick separation of the joint surfaces stretches the joint capsule, relaxes tight muscles, and improves joint mobility. Mobilization uses graded oscillatory movements or sustained stretches to produce similar effects. Oscillatory movements have a calming effect on the body and help to reduce pain. Massage involves rubbing and kneading of soft tissue of the body (muscle, connective tissue, tendons, and ligaments) to promote relaxation, improve tissue mobility, and stimulate healing. Other soft tissue techniques similar to massage include myofascial release, tool assisted soft tissue mobilization, and muscle energy. Physical therapists use manual therapy techniques to treat a wide range of musculoskeletal conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, rotator cuff tendonitis, neck and back pain, tension headaches, hip and knee osteoarthritis, and plantar fasciitis. The goal of manual therapy is to restore mobility of joints, soft tissues, and nerves to reduce pain and improve function. “When used in combination with exercise and education, manual therapy is a powerful tool” said Michael Costello, a manual physical therapist in Ithaca, NY. Manual therapy is typically followed by exercise that activates muscles and reinforces correct movement patterns. Dr. John Winslow a member of the NYPTA, states that “the efficacy of manual therapy has been studied extensively, particularly for the treatment of neck and back pain. Neck and back pain are common maladies that effects millions of Americans and are a common reason for a visit to a primary care doctor.” Clinical prediction rules (CPR’s) have been developed by physical therapists, through vigorous research, to help guide decision making as to whether a patient will benefit from manual therapy. Not every patient with a musculoskeletal condition will benefit from manual therapy and may require other physical therapy interventions. Physical therapists are trained in manual therapy techniques as part of their Doctoral education. Many also go on for post-doctoral training and specialization. If you have a musculoskeletal condition that is limiting your ability to enjoy daily life, consult a physical therapist and see if manual therapy is right for you. About the NYPTA The NYPTA (http://www.nypta.org) has the proud heritage as the genesis of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) in New York City in 1921. The NYPTA is currently the second largest chapter of the APTA, with over 6,000 members who are physical therapists, physical therapist assistants and students. The mission of the NYPTA is to empower and support its members in advancing the practice and profession of physical therapy through advocacy, education and research.

News Article | December 15, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

FAU has demonstrated its strength in research once again: the University is conducting a new research project together with Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and other European partners in which researchers will develop an innovative hybrid device that combines different medical imaging technologies and will help stroke patients in particular to receive quicker diagnosis and treatment. The project is being funded by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology for Health (EIT Health), a publicly financed initiative that aims to ensure sustainable development of innovative health care solutions. The project 'Predictive Prevention and Personalized Interventional Stroke Therapy - P3 Stroke' is one of only two in Germany and eight in Europe to receive funding. EIT Health connects successful regional clusters with international networks of excellent universities, institutes, university hospitals and commercial research centres through the European research and innovation framework programme Horizon 2020. Over 140 companies, research institutions and universities from across Europe collaborate on a diverse range of projects as part of EIT Health; FAU and Siemens Healthineers are among the key partners. The initiative will receive around 80 million euros of annual funding over the next seven years. Thanks to these resources, EIT Health is able to develop innovative products, educational programmes and services that will help Europe to deal with the challenges of demographic change. To receive sought-after funding from EIT Health, a group of partners must submit a high-quality project. Prof. Dr. Dr. Jürgen Schüttler, Dean of FAU's Faculty of Medicine, is delighted that this was achieved with the P3 Stroke project: 'The project strengthens the connection between the University, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and partners in industry such as Siemens Healthineers, a collaboration that meets the highest standards in Europe.' 'With the P3 Stroke project we want to improve the diagnosis and interventional treatment of strokes on a fundamental level by combining the use of magnetic resonance imaging and angiography,' explains Dr. Heinrich Kolem, CEO of Advanced Therapies at Siemens Healthineers. Conducting separate examinations using different devices takes time, particularly due to the need to transfer patients between locations. This is valuable time that stroke patients do not have. As an average of 2 million neurons are destroyed every minute, every minutes counts during efforts to prevent major damage after a stroke. In collaboration with Siemens Healthineers, the team of researchers led by Prof. Dr. Arnd Dörfler, head of the Department of Neuroradiology at Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, and Prof. Dr. Andreas Maier, head of the Pattern Recognition Lab at FAU, now want to combine two imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography. This innovative approach will be used for diagnosis and immediate treatment, reducing the time needed for patient transfers and saving valuable time when treating stroke patients. 'The pioneering system enables an exact picture of the development of the condition to be obtained without delay, allowing for effective treatment,' Professor Dörfler says. While the clinical evaluation of the new methods will be led by the Department of Neuroradiology at Universitätsklinikum Erlangen in close collaboration with the Department of Neurology, the Pattern Recognition Lab is responsible for developing the software: 'We have been conducting research in various areas of medical imaging for many years and can therefore contribute a considerable amount of expertise,' Professor Maier explains. Although the researchers see stroke patients as the main group who will benefit from the new technology, this does not mean that it will be limited to this area. 'The system will also have applications in minimally invasive treatment for other neuro- and cardiovascular disorders and in oncology,' Professor Dörfler says optimistically. For Dr. Simone Reiprich, director of FAU's Central Institute of Healthcare Engineering (ZiMT) and the University's official representative in EIT Health's international Partner Assembly, and Dr. Kurt Höller, director of Business Creation and a member of EIT Health's Management Board, the fact that funding has been awarded for the project is further proof of the region's significance in the field of medical technology: 'The projects that EIT Health awards funding to are highly innovative and involve a high level of scientific expertise. Receiving this funding amid high competition is therefore a great success.'

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