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Dhar A.K.,BrioBiotech Corporation | Manna S.K.,Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute | Thomas Allnutt F.C.,BrioBiotech Corporation

Over the past decade, aquaculture has grown at an average annual growth rate of approximately 6 % worldwide despite many challenges. Viral diseases are one of the major challenges that are threatening a sustainable growth of finfish farming globally. Vaccination of farmed fish plays an important role in commercial fish farming to mitigate viral diseases. In this review, we summarized the major viral diseases that have caused serious economic losses, and emerging diseases that pose a potential threat to aquaculture. The current status of viral vaccines in farmed fish are discussed, particularly the different types of vaccines that were licensed in recent years and are now commercially available, and the routes of delivery of those vaccines including the merits and demerits of each of these delivery method. Furthermore, the article provides an overview of different experimental vaccines that have been reported in the literatures in recent years besides highlighting the future need for developing cost-effective, oral vaccines that can be easily applicable at farm level. © 2013, Indian Virological Society. Source

Kumar A.,Central Institute for Research on Goats | Rout P.K.,Central Institute for Research on Goats | Mohanty B.P.,Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute
Journal of Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Analysis of casein and whey protein was carried out in six Indian goats by both SDS-PAGE and 2-DE analysis. The variation was observed mainly in αs 1, αs2, β, κ-casein and β-lacto globulin locus in these breeds. Proteome analysis showed the presence of high number of spots in αs1 -casein, and κ-casein showed highest number of spots in all the goat breeds. The gels were showing remarkably both variability and similarity suggesting that the heterogeneity in protein forms in individual milk samples exist, and milk protein represents a common pattern of post-translational modification. © 2013 Kumar A, et al. Source

Samanta S.,Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute
Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management

The River Ganga passes through a large number of cities, towns, villages and agricultural fields. A sizable fraction of effluents and sewages generated from all these diverse sectors enters into the river. The incoming water is, therefore, carrying huge amounts of organic substances, residues of the used pesticides and metals along with other contaminants. Review of the pesticide residue studies indicate that hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and endosulfan were the major contaminants in water and biota while HCH, DDT, aldrin and dieldrin dominate the sediment phase. In water the residues are frequently crossing the permissible limits of US EPA standards for aquatic organisms and their consumers, indicating various levels of risk. In fishes, the permissible limits for HCH, endosulfan and DDT are exceed only in some occasions, signifying minor risks on human consumption. Regarding metal contaminations, the uppermost stretch, up to Haridwar, is relatively free from pollutions. The middle stretch, receiving diverse kinds of effluents, is markedly polluted. Although a significant stretch of the estuarine zone is densely industrialized and regularly receives effluents, the tidal action is maintaining the metals in lower level than the middle stretch. However, in majority of the cases the reported levels in water were much higher than the US EPA permissible limits for aquatic organisms. With respect to the metal contaminations in sediments, the river is found moderately polluted. In some fishes, contamination of Pb, Hg and Cr crosses the limits. However, the alkaline pH, high sediment transportation and rigorous flushing during monsoons are protecting the river from accumulation of these toxic contaminants. With respect to aquatic health, it is anticipated that the metal and pesticide contaminations might have adversely affected fish health. Systematic studies are, however, lacking on this aspect. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Karak T.,Pollution Control Board | Karak T.,Tea Research Association | Abollino O.,University of Turin | Bhattacharyya P.,University of California at Riverside | And 2 more authors.

The distribution pattern and fractionation of arsenic (As) in three soil profiles from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) gardens located in Karbi-Anglong (KA), Cachar (CA) and Karimganj (KG) districts in the state of Assam, India, were investigated depth-wise (0-10, 10-30, 30-60 and 60-100. cm). DTPA-extractable As was primarily restricted to surface horizons. Arsenic speciation study showed the presence of higher As(V) concentrations in the upper horizon and its gradual decrease with the increase in soil depths, following a decrease of Eh. As fractionation by sequential extraction in all the soil profiles showed that arsenic concentrations in the three most labile fractions (i.e., water-soluble, exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions) were generally low. Most arsenic in soils was nominally associated with the organic and Fe-Mn oxide fractions, being extractable in oxidizing or reducing conditions. DTPA-extractable As (assumed to represent plant-available As) was found to be strongly correlated to the labile pool of As (i.e. the sum of the first three fractions). The statistical comparison of means (two-sample t-test) showed the presence of significant differences between the concentrations of As(III) and As(V) for different soil locations, depths and fractions. The risk assessment code (RAC) was found to be below the pollution level for all soils. The measurement of arsenic uptake by different parts of tea plants corroborated the hypothesis that roots act as a buffer and hold back contamination from the aerial parts. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Manna Ranjan K.,Regional Center | Das Archan K.,Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute | Krishna Rao D.S.,Hessarghata Lake Post | Karthikeyan M.,Hessarghata Lake Post | Singh D.N.,4 Pannalal Road
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Fisheries ecology of entire stretch of river Krishna was investigated during 2001-02 along with the status of fish and fisheries. Documentation of crafts and gears in freshwater sector of India is scanty. This paper is an attempt to record the fishery related indigenous technological knowledge in terms of fishing crafts and gear used in river Krishna. As many as 6 different types of crafts and 10 different gear were encountered during the monsoon survey of the river. The crafts were coracle, plank-built boat, palm-canoe, thermocol raft, rubber tube platform and banana stem raft. The gears were gill net, cast net, drag net, push net (triangular), scoop net, ring net, hook and line, lantern net (light trap), box trap and cradle trap. Source

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