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Jiang H.,Shanghai University | Zou J.,Shanghai University | Zhang H.,Shanghai University | Fu W.,Shanghai University | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2013

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an essential pathway for both normal and malignant plasma cells to maintain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis in response to the large amount of immunoglobulin (Ig) output. The inositol-requiring enzyme 1-X-box binding protein-1 (IRE1-XBP-1) arm of the UPR pathway has been shown to play crucial roles not only in relieving the ER stress by up-regulating a series of genes favoring ER-associated protein degradation and protein folding, but in mediating terminal plasmacytic differentiation and maturation. Myeloma cells comprise various subsets arrested in diverse differentiated phases, and the immaturity of myeloma cells has been taken as a marker for poor prognosis, suggesting that differentiation induction would be a promising therapeutic strategy for myeloma. Herein, we used low-dose pharmacological UPR inducers such as tunicamycin (TM) and dithiothreitol (DTT) to efficiently activate the IRE1-XBP-1 pathway in myeloma cells characterized by transcriptional expression increase in spliced XBP-1 and molecular chaperons, accompanied by significant differentiation and maturation of these myeloma cells, without concomitant cytotoxicity. These differentiated myeloma cells exhibited a more mature appearance with well-developed cytoplasm and a reduced nucleocytoplasmic ratio, and a further differentiated phenotype with markedly increased expression of CD49e together with significantly elevated cellular secretion of Ig light chain as shown by flow cytometry and ELISA, in contrast to the control myeloma cells without exposed to TM or DTT. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of XBP-1 disrupted TM- or DTT-induced myeloma cell differentiation and maturation. Our study, for the first time, validated that the modest activation of the UPR pathway enables myeloma cells to further differentiate, and identified that XBP-1 plays an indispensable role in UPR-mediated myeloma cell differentiation and maturation. Thus, we provided the rationale and feasibility for the exploration of the novel therapeutic strategy of differentiation induction for plasmacytic malignancies. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Italia.

Qin W.,Nanjing University | Xu Z.,Nanjing University | Lu Y.,Central Hospital of Zhabei District | Zeng C.,Nanjing University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF) in the ratio of 2:2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5-6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16) and 25% (4/16), respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D)-Glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli. © 2012 Qin et al.

Li Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang K.,Central Hospital of Zhabei District | Yin S.K.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zheng H.L.,Shanghai University | Min D.L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2016

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which can be monitored by the levels of Rta protein antibody IgG (Rta-IgG), early antigen antibody (EA-IgG), and viral capsid antibody (VCA-IgA). In the present study, we investigated the serum levels of Rta-IgG, EA-IgG, and VCA-IgA in nasopharyngeal cancer patients, and the diagnostic value of a combined assay that includes these antibodies in addition to the EBV-DNA. A total of 56 nasopharyngeal cancer patients were recruited as the study population, along with 48 benign rhinitis patients and 42 healthy individuals. Serum EA-IgG, Rta-IgG, and VCA-IgA levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and EBV-DNA was quantified with PCR. The diagnostic value of these indices was further evaluated by ROC curve analysis. The expression levels of EA-IgG, Rta-IgG, VCA-IgA, and EBV-DNA were elevated in the nasopharyngeal cancer patients, who had higher levels of these antibodies than those in the rhinitis patients, followed by the healthy individuals. These indices were also increased with advanced TNM stage. The overall diagnostic efficacy was ranked as follows: VCA-IgA, Rta-IgA, EA-IgA, and EBV-DNA. The combined diagnosis using these four indices increased the sensitivity to 98.21% and the negative predictive value to 98.61%, without any significant compromise on the test specificity. In conclusion, EA-IgG, Rta-IgG, VCA-IgA, and EBV-DNA expression levels were elevated in nasopharyngeal patients. The combined diagnostic value of these serum indices has important implications in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. © FUNPEC-RP.

Huang L.,Central Hospital of Zhabei District | Li G.,Tongji University | Feng X.,Central Hospital of Zhabei District | Wang L.,Central Hospital of Zhabei District
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

To investigate the effect of PPARγ agonist 15d-PGJ2 treatment on the microglia activation and neurological deficit of ischemia reperfusion in diabetic rat model, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed for the research. The rats were randomly categorized into four groups: (1) sham-operated group; (2) standard ischemia group; (3) diabetic ischemia group; (4) diabetic ischemia group with diabetes and treated with 15d-PGJ2. Compared to the sham-operated group, all the ischemic groups have significantly severer neurological deficits, more TNF-α and IL-1 expression, increased labeling of apoptotic cells, increased CD68 positive staining of brain lesion, and increased volume of infarct and cerebral edema in both 24 hours and 7 days after reperfusion. Interestingly, reduced neurological deficits, decreased TNF-α and IL-1 expression, less apoptotic cells and CD68 positive staining, and alleviated infarct and cerebral edema volume were observed when 15d-PGJ2 was intraperitoneally injected after reperfusion in diabetic ischemia group, suggesting its neuroprotective role in regulating microglia activation, which may have a therapeutic application in the future. © 2015 Lihong Huang et al.

Zhao J.-S.,Tongji University | Zhu F.-S.,Tongji University | Liu S.,Central Hospital of Zhabei District | Yang C.-Q.,Tongji University | Chen X.-M.,Tongji University
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2012

Background Pioglitazone is effective in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but the mechanisms of action are not completely understood. This study was designed to investigate the effects of pioglitazone on hepatic nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenases-2 (COX-2) expression in NASH rats. Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned to a control group (n=10), NASH group (n=10), and pioglitazone treatment group (n=10). Liver tissues were processed for histology by hematoxylin & eosin and Masson stained. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS) levels and biochemical parameters of antioxidant enzyme activities, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in serum and liver were measured. The mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), NF-κB and COX-2 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used for the statistical analysis. Results There were severe steatosis, moderate inflammatory cellular infiltration and fibrosis in NASH rats. After pioglitazone treatment, steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis were significantly improved compared with the NASH group (χ2=20.40, P <0.001; χ2=20.17, P <0.001; χ2=13.98, P=0.002). Serum ALT, cholesterol, triglyceride, FBG, FINS levels were significantly elevated in the NASH group (P <0.05). In the NASH group, total anti-oxidation competence (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum and liver were conspicuous disordered than those parameters in the control group. Meanwhile, TNF-α and PGE2 levels in serum and liver were significantly increased compared with the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed NF-κB and COX-2 expression in liver was significantly elevated. However, PPARγ level was decreased in the NASH group. Real-time PCR and Western blotting revealed mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 were increased in the NASH group compared with the control group (0.57±0.08 vs. 2.83±0.24; 0.38±0.03 vs. 1.00±0.03, P <0.001 and P=0.004, respectively). After pioglitazone intervention, all of those parameters markedly improved (P <0.05 or P <0.01). Conclusion Down-regulating hepatic NF-κB and COX-2 expression, at least in part, is one of the possible therapeutic mechanisms of pioglitazone in NASH rats.

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