Letang E.,University of Barcelona |
Miro J.M.,University of Barcelona |
Ayala E.,University of Barcelona |
White I.E.,University of Colorado at Denver |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2010
Background: The impact and relevance of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome-associated with Kaposi sarcoma (IRIS-KS) has not been assessed in sub-Saharan African countries, where the bulk of HIV-1 and KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) coinfection occurs. Understanding the risk factors for developing IRIS-KS would aid in the identification and in the improvement of clinical management for high-risk patients. Methods: Sixty-nine consecutive HIV-1 and KSHV coinfected Mozambican adults initiating cART were prospectively followed for development of IRIS-KS over 10 months as part of a larger prospective observational study. Plasma HIV RNA, CD4 counts, anti-KSHV lytic antibodies, and plasma KSHV DNA viral load were assessed at the pre-cART visit and at 4 and 10 months after cART initiation. A survival analysis was performed to assess potential risk factors for developing IRIS-KS. Results: During the first 10 months of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), 8 patients (8/69, 11.6%) experienced IRIS-KS at a median time of 13.8 weeks after cART initiation. Multivariate analysis identified 4 independent IRIS-KS predictors: clinical pretreatment KS [hazard ratio (HR) 91.7], detectable plasma KSHV DNA (HR 24.4), hematocrit <30% (HR 26.5), and plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (HR 34.6 per log viral load increase). Treatment with either cART alone or with a combination of cART and systemic chemotherapy led to partial or complete clinical response in 62.5% (5/8) of IRIS-KS cases. Conclusions: This study identified 4 independent predictors of IRIS-KS, which may help to develop screening tools aiding in the identification of patients at high risk of IRIS-KS for whom close clinical supervision is warranted. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Fernandes F.,Eduardo Mondlane University |
Eloy C.,Porto VUniversity and IPATIMUP |
Carimo A.,Hospital Central Of Maputo |
Pinto P.,Hospital Central Of Maputo |
And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Case Reports | Year: 2013
Objective: Rare disease Background: KSHV/HHV-8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as well as with a few categories of lymphoproliferative diseases, mostly occurring in patients with HIV infection/AIDS. Although the association between lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma has been described, the simultaneous presence of the 2 entities within the same organ is rare and mainly associated with HIV/ AIDS. Case Report: We report a case of simultaneous occurrence of Kaposi's sarcoma and large B-cell lymphoma in the same lymph node in a 18-year-old African woman who was HIV-negative. We found concurrent infection with Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), confirmed by PCR amplification of DNA obtained from distinct tumor areas selected in the paraffin block. Conclusions: The possibility of occurrence of 2 lesions with distinct features in the same organ may be unexpected for pathologists performing fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) evaluation but must be considered, even in HIVnegative individuals, despite its rare occurrence, as was demonstrated by this case. © Am J Case Rep, 2013.
Chavale H.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude |
Chavale H.,Hospital Central Of Maputo |
Santos-Oliveira J.R.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz |
Da-Cruz A.M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz |
And 2 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2012
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection has an important impact on malaria. Plasmodium falciparum and HIV-1 co-infected patients (Pf/HIV) present with a high degree of anaemia, enhanced parasitaemia and de- creased CD4+ T cell counts, which increase the risk of developing severe malaria. In addition, infection with either Pf or HIV-1 alone causes extensive immune activation. Our hypothesis was that lymphocyte activation is potentiated in Pf/HIV co-infected patients, consequently worsening their immunosuppressed state. To test this hypothesis, 22 Pf/ HIV patients, 34 malaria patients, 29 HIV/AIDS patients and 10 healthy controls without malaria or HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) from Maputo/Mozambique were recruited for this study. As expected, anaemia was most prevalent in the Pf/HIV group. A significant variation in parasite density was observed in the Pf/HIV co-infected group (110-75,000 parasites/μL), although the median values were similar to those of the malaria only patients. The CD4+ T cell counts were significantly lower in the Pf/HIV group than in the HIV/AIDS only or malaria only patients. Lymphocyte activation was evaluated by the percentage of activation-associated molecules [CD38 expression on CD8+ and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression on CD3+ T cells]. The highest CD38 expression was detected in the Pf/HIV co-infected patients (median = 78.2%). The malaria only (median = 50%) and HIV/AIDS only (median = 52%) patients also exhibited elevated levels of these molecules, although the values were lower than those of the Pf/HIV co-infected cases. Our findings suggest that enhanced T-cell activation in co-infected patients can worsen the immune response to both diseases.
Antunes F.,University of Lisbon |
Zindoga P.,Hospital Central Of Maputo |
Gomes P.,Centro Hospitalar Lisbon Ocidental |
Augusto O.,Eduardo Mondlane University |
And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Background: Single-dose nevirapine (sd-NVP) has been the main option for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 in low-resource settings. However, sd-NVP can induce the selection of HIV-1 resistant mutations in mothers and infants. In Mozambique, there are limited data regarding the profile of NVP resistance associated mutations (RAM) in the context of PMTCT. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and the factors associated with NVP RAM among children born to HIV-1 infected mothers enrolled in the PMTCT programme adopted in Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and fifty seven children aged 6 to 48 weeks were sequentially included (July 2011 to March 2012) at four centres in Maputo. Genotyping of RAM was performed in samples with HIV-1 RNA≥ 100 copies/μL (Viroseq). Sequencing was performed with ABI 3100 (Applied Biosystems). Logistic regression modelling was undertaken to identify the factors associated with NVP RAM. Results: Seventy-nine children had their samples genotyped. Their median age was 7.0 (3-12) months and 92.4% received prophylaxis with sd-NVP at birth plus daily NVP. 35.4%of mothers received antiretrovirals (ARVs) for PMTCT. ARV RAM were detected in 43 (54.4%) of the children. 45.6% of these children had at least one NVP RAM. The most common mutations associated with NVP resistance were K103N (n = 16) and Y181C (n = 15). NVP RAM was significantly associated with mother exposure to PMTCT (crude odds ratio [OR] 30.3, 95% CI 4.93-186.34) and with mother's CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3 (crude OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.02-9.32). In the multivariable analysis the mother's exposure to PMTCT was the only variable significantly associated with NVP RAM (adjusted OR 48.65, 95% CI 9.33- 253.66). Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of NVP RAM among children who were exposed to the drug regimen for PMTCT in Mozambique. The mothers' exposure to PMTCT significantly increased the risk of NVP RAM. © 2015 Antunes et al.
Karan A.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Amado V.,Hospital Central Of Maputo |
Vitorino P.,Hospital Central Of Maputo |
Kulber D.,University of Southern California |
And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Surgery International | Year: 2015
Background: Pediatric burn injuries are one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research on the complex system of social, economic and cultural factors contributing to burn injuries in this setting is much needed. Methods: We conducted a prospective questionnaire-based analysis of pediatric burn patients presenting to the Hospital Central de Maputo. A total of 39 patients were included in the study. Interviews were conducted with the children’s caretakers by two trained medical students at the Eduardo Mondlane Medical School in Maputo with the aid of local nursing staff. Results: Most burns occurred from scald wounds (26/39) particularly from bathwater, followed by fire burns (11/39). Burns occurred more frequently in the afternoon (16/39) and evening (16/39). Over one quarter of burns (9/33) occurred in the absence of a caretaker. One-third (12/36) of participants attempted to treat the burn at home prior to bringing the child into the hospital, and roughly two-thirds (24/37) reported using traditional remedies for burn care. The average household had just 2 rooms for an average of 5 family members. Most burns were second degree (25/37). Conclusions: Prevention efforts in this setting are much needed and can be implemented taking complex cultural and social factors into account. Education regarding regulation of water temperature for baths is important, given the prevalence of scald burns. Moreover, the introduction of low-cost, safer cooking technology can help mitigate inhalation injury and reduce fire burns. Additionally, burn care systems must be integrated with local traditional medical interventions to respect local cultural medicinal practices. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Mayosi B.M.,University of Cape Town |
Ntsekhe M.,University of Cape Town |
Bosch J.,Hamilton Health Sciences |
Pandie S.,University of Cape Town |
And 34 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014
Background Tuberculous pericarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality even if antituberculosis therapy is administered. We evaluated the effects of adjunctive glucocorticoid therapy and Mycobacterium indicus pranii immunotherapy in patients with tuberculous pericarditis.Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 1400 adults with definite or probable tuberculous pericarditis to either prednisolone or placebo for 6 weeks and to either M. indicus pranii or placebo, administered in five injections over the course of 3 months. Two thirds of the participants had concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death, cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis, or constrictive pericarditis.Results There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between patients who received prednisolone and those who received placebo (23.8% and 24.5%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.18; P = 0.66) or between those who received M. indicus pranii immunotherapy and those who received placebo (25.0% and 24.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.29; P = 0.81). Prednisolone therapy, as compared with placebo, was associated with significant reductions in the incidence of constrictive pericarditis (4.4% vs. 7.8%; hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.87; P = 0.009) and hospitalization (20.7% vs. 25.2%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.99; P = 0.04). Both prednisolone and M. indicus pranii, each as compared with placebo, were associated with a significant increase in the incidence of cancer (1.8% vs. 0.6%; hazard ratio, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 10.03; P = 0.03, and 1.8% vs. 0.5%; hazard ratio, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.03 to 13.24; P = 0.03, respectively), owing mainly to an increase in HIV-associated cancer.Conclusions In patients with tuberculous pericarditis, neither prednisolone nor M. indicus pranii had a significant effect on the composite of death, cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis, or constrictive pericarditis. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.
PubMed | University of Southern California, University of California at Los Angeles and Hospital Central Of Maputo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatric surgery international | Year: 2015
Pediatric burn injuries are one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research on the complex system of social, economic and cultural factors contributing to burn injuries in this setting is much needed.We conducted a prospective questionnaire-based analysis of pediatric burn patients presenting to the Hospital Central de Maputo. A total of 39 patients were included in the study. Interviews were conducted with the childrens caretakers by two trained medical students at the Eduardo Mondlane Medical School in Maputo with the aid of local nursing staff.Most burns occurred from scald wounds (26/39) particularly from bathwater, followed by fire burns (11/39). Burns occurred more frequently in the afternoon (16/39) and evening (16/39). Over one quarter of burns (9/33) occurred in the absence of a caretaker. One-third (12/36) of participants attempted to treat the burn at home prior to bringing the child into the hospital, and roughly two-thirds (24/37) reported using traditional remedies for burn care. The average household had just 2 rooms for an average of 5 family members. Most burns were second degree (25/37).Prevention efforts in this setting are much needed and can be implemented taking complex cultural and social factors into account. Education regarding regulation of water temperature for baths is important, given the prevalence of scald burns. Moreover, the introduction of low-cost, safer cooking technology can help mitigate inhalation injury and reduce fire burns. Additionally, burn care systems must be integrated with local traditional medical interventions to respect local cultural medicinal practices.
Sitoe N.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude |
Luecke E.,Association of Public Health Laboratories |
Tembe N.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude |
Matavele R.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2011
Introduction: CD4+ T-cell counting is usually performed on whole blood obtained from standard venipuncture. Venipuncture requires expertise, results in discomfort and generates biological waste. Capillary blood could be used to measure the levels of CD4+ T-cell in children, elderly and very ill patients. We studied the agreement between CD4+ T-cell counts and percent generated using venous blood with those obtained with capillary blood in HIV-infected adults and children in a resource-limited tropical setting. Methods: This cross-sectional study consecutively enrolled a total of 152 adult and pediatric HIV-positive patients attending two outpatient clinics in Maputo City, Mozambique. We recruited individuals presenting for their routine clinical follow-up that included the determination of CD4+ T-cell counts in peripheral blood. For each subject, peripheral blood specimens were obtained by both venipuncture and finger prick. Specimens were tested using two flow cytometers, the FACSCount and the FACSCalibur. Results: Absolute CD4+ T-cell counts obtained using capillary blood were in close agreement with those from venous blood both on the FACSCalibur (absolute bias=+12.3cells/mm 3, limits of agreement: -259.2 to +283.9, R 2=0.96) and the FACSCount (absolute bias=+16.1cells/mm 3, limits of agreement: -209.2 to +241.5, R 2=0.97). Percent CD4+ T-cell counts were measured only on the FACSCalibur also showed a good agreement with a bias of +0.6% and limits of agreement of -3.1 to +4.3. Conclusions: Absolute CD4+ T-cell counts and percent generated using capillary blood are in close agreement with those from venous blood. Point-Of-Care assays and standard flow cytometers can be deployed in a tiered laboratory network where both venous and capillary blood collection can be used for CD4+ T-cell enumeration. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Mocumbi A.O.,Instituto do Coracao |
Paul L.,Instituto do Coracao |
Maciel L.,Hospital Geral Of Mavalane |
Silva P.,Hospital Central Of Maputo |
Ferreira M.B.,Instituto do Coracao
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa | Year: 2011
Malignant lymphoma can involve the cardiac cavity or myocardium as a mass. Since clinical symptoms of its cardiac involvement are usually absent or non-specific, they may be undetected during life. Burkitt-like lymphoma (BLL) is a highly aggressive B-cell lymphoma with a high proliferative rate. Histopathological characteristics are considered borderline between those of classic Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Extensive cardiac involvement of BLL is rare and poorly documented in the literature. We report the case of a child with BLL, presenting with extensive infiltration of the heart in the absence of HIV infection, and with right-sided heart failure and positional dyspnoea as the major clinical problems. We highlight the challenges for diagnosis and adequate treatment in poor settings like ours.
Zimba T.F.,University of KwaZulu - Natal |
Zimba T.F.,Hospital Central Of Maputo |
Apalata T.,University of KwaZulu - Natal |
Sturm W.A.,University of KwaZulu - Natal |
Moodley P.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2011
Introduction: The study sought to ascertain the prevalence of the aetiological agents of genital discharge and genital ulcer diseases in Maputo, Mozambique. Methodology: Consecutive consenting patients presenting to the Centro de Saúde do Porto in Maputo between March and April 2005 with genital discharge syndrome and/or genital ulcer diseases were recruited. Specimens were collected for the identification of STI pathogens. Results: Of 346 recruited patients, 164 were male and 182 female. The prevalence of confirmed single aetiological agents for male urethritis was as follows: N. gonorrhoeae, 35%; C. trachomatis, 10%; and M. genitalium 4%. For vaginal discharge, N. gonorrhoeae was found in11% of the women tested, followed by C. trachomatis (6.5%), bacterial vaginosis (34%), and T. vaginalis (2%). The prevalence of genital ulcers was as follows: Herpes simplex virus type 2, 62%; H. ducreyi 4 %; and C. trachomatis biovar LGV, 4%. Five percent of patients with genital ulcers had a positive syphilis serology (RPR ≥ 1:8 and confirmed by TPHA) and 35% of all tested patients were HIV-1/2 infected. Cases of mixed infections were present in 5%, 11% and 3% of patients with male urethritis, vaginal discharge, and genital ulcers respectively. Conclusion: The classic sexually transmitted infection aetiologies are still prevalent in Maputo. The study highlights the need for a periodic surveillance to inform syndromic management protocols. © 2011 Noorali et al.