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Arya L.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Narayanan R.K.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Verma M.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Singh A.K.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station | Gupta V.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2014

Morinda tomentosa Heyne (Rubiaceae) an evergreen small tree also known as Aal or Indian Mulberry or Nunaa has broad range of therapeutic and nutritional value and is broadly used for making morindone dye for the dyeing of silk, cotton and wool. This is the first report wherein twenty genotypes of M. tomentosa, an underutilized fruit plant collected from Madhya Pradesh, India were studied for genetic diversity analyses using 131 Start Codon Targeted Markers (SCoT) (gene based) and 97 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 70 Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) (neutral) markers. SCoT markers showed the highest level of polymorphism, Shannon’s Information Index and Polymorphism Information Content (70.23 %; 0.31 ± 0.27; 0.189 ± 0.103), while the total number of bands per primer (7.0) was highest for ISSR markers. Nei’s gene diversity (0.20) was found similar for both ISSR and SCoT markers. And geographical clustering was most pronounced with ISSR followed by SCoT and RAPD markers. Cumulative marker data revealed best clustering of genotypes based on their areas of the collection. And individually, our results showed the efficacy of both SCoT and ISSR (co-phenetic correlation values of 0.79 and 0.76 respectively) over RAPD (co-phenetic correlation value of 0.69) markers for genetic diversity and geographical patterning studies of M. tomentosa. Additionally, structure analysis grouped the twenty M. tomentosa genotypes into two sub-populations, this structuring and the identified markers can be utilized for making further strategies for collection and conservation of M. tomentosa from Madhya Pradesh and other states of India as well as for global collections. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Among the various pests that attack pomegranate, anar butterfly, Deudorix (=Virachola) isocrates Fab., has assumed a major status limiting the cultivation of this crop in and around Panchmahal district of Gujarat, India. An attempt was therefore made to study varietal reaction, extent of damage and management of borer in commercially grown cultivars of pomegranate. In all, there were five cultivars viz., 'Ganesh', 'Mridula', 'Jyoti', 'Ruby' and 'Jalore seedless' which were replicated four times. There were four plants in each replication. The crop chosen for the experiment was the late Hasta and early Ambe bahar crop. In order to retain the crop, need based irrigation was given at regular interval. Bagging was resorted for management of borer. Observations on varietal reaction to borer revealed that all cultivars were found to be equally susceptible to borer attack. The incidence ranged between 35.0% in 'Jalore seedless' to 42.0% in 'Ganesh'. Gradually, it increased from 50.0 to 60.0% in the second week of March. The situation was however further deteriorated and almost 80-90% fruits were found to be damaged by borer in unprotected plot. The experiment on bagging of fruits showed significant reduction on percentage damaged fruit and the extent of damage was observed to be below 10.0% in almost all cultivars as against 90.0% in open fruits. Source

Bharathi L.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Munshi A.D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Vinod,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Chandrashekaran S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Genetics | Year: 2011

Somatic chromosome number and detailed karyotype analysis were carried out in six Indian Momordica species viz. M. balsamina, M. charantia, M. cochinchinensis, M. dioica, M. sahyadrica and M. cymbalaria (syn. Luffa cymbalaria; a taxon of controversial taxonomic identity). The somatic chromosome number 2n = 22 was reconfirmed in monoecious species (M. balsamina and M. charantia). Out of four dioecious species, the chromosome number was reconfirmed in M. cochinchinensis (2n = 28), M. dioica (2n = 28) and M. subangulata subsp. renigera (2n = 56), while in M. sahyadrica (2n = 28) somatic chromosome number was reported for the first time. A new chromosome number of 2n = 18 was reported in M. cymbalaria against its previous reports of 2n = 16, 22. The karyotype analysis of all the species revealed significant numerical and structural variations of chromosomes. It was possible to distinguish chromosomes of M. cymbalaria from other Momordica species and also between monoecious and dioecious taxa of the genus. Morphology and crossability among the dioecious species was also studied. Evidence from morphology, crossability, pollen viability and chromosome synapsis suggests a segmental allopolyploid origin for M. subangulata subsp. renigera. The taxonomic status of the controversial taxon M. cymbalaria was also discussed using morphological, karyological and crossability data. © 2011 Indian Academy of Sciences. Source

Shivashankar S.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | Sumathi M.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | Singh H.S.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Jelly seed (JS) in ‘Amrapali’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a physiological disorder, the cause of which has long remained obscure. The disorder is distinguished by the appearance of jelly-like tissue in the pulp adjoining the stone, although the fruit show no external symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine the causative factor inducing the JS disorder in ‘Amrapali’ mango. Studies showed, for the first time, that JS in ‘Amrapali’ mango arose at the start of germination-associated events in the seed of developing fruit. The trigger for premature seed germination originated from reduced synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in the seed of developing fruit. This then promoted the production of cytokinins, leading to the onset of premature germination-associated events in the seed. Consequently, a large increase in the activities of pectinolytic enzymes in JS pulp occurred that led to the rapid degradation of pectin and excessive softening of the pulp, to the consistency of jelly. The application of plant growth regulators to developing fruit showed that gibberellic acid (GA3) increased the incidence of JS, while paclobutrazol reduced the incidence of JS, confirming that the onset of early germination during fruit maturation and ripening played a primary role in the incidence of the JS disorder. © 2016 The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology Trust. Source

Rathod A.H.,Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University | Singh A.K.,Central Horticultural Experiment Station
Medicinal Plants | Year: 2016

Genetic variability and heritability for morphological and phytochemical attributes were studied in Morinda tomentosa. The magnitude of genotypic coefficient of variation was higher for all but number of seeds per fruit, flavonol content in leaf, number of branches per plant, flavonol content in fruit, fruit length, total soluble sugar, plant height, ascorbic acid content in fruit and fruit width indicating lesser role of environment in the expression of the traits. The broad sense heritability was higher for all but fruit width indicating explicit realization of heritable variance and thereby offering abundant chances of improvement in those characters by simple selection. The higher estimates of genetic advance with high heritability for total phenol content in leaf, carotenoid content in leaf and fruit inferred role of additive gene action in the expression of these traits that further corroborated phenotypic selection based on these traits to be more effective. © 2016, IndianJournals.com. All rights reserved. Source

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