Hussain J.,Central Groundwater Board |
Arif M.,Banasthali University
IAHS-AISH Proceedings and Reports | Year: 2014
Rajasthan, the largest State in India, has one of the most critical water statuses. Rajasthan, with more than 10.4% of the country's geographical area, supports more than 5.5% of the human population and 18.70% of the livestock, but only has 1.16% of the total surface water available in the country. More than 60% of the state is a part of the Great Thar Desert, and of the total 142 desert blocks in the country, 85 blocks are in the state of Rajasthan. The per capita annual water availability in the state is about 780 m3, compared with the minimum requirement of 1000 m3. It is feared that the availability would fall below 450 m3 by the year 2050. Thus, increasing population coupled with erratic rainfall further aggravates the water crisis. It is possible to harvest and augment water resources through the construction of small water harvesting structures called johads and the implementation of local water governance. This has been amply demonstrated by the successful experience of local communities in Alwar District in Rajasthan. Since 1985, 8600 johads have been built in 1086 villages. This has resulted in the rise in water levels in the shallow aquifer, increase in the area under single and double crops, increase in forest cover and drinking water supply security. The water collected in a johad during the monsoon penetrates into the sub-soil. This recharges the groundwater and improves the soil moisture in vast areas. The water in the johad can be used directly for irrigation, drinking water by animals, and other domestic purposes. The other advantage of this structure is that it checks soil erosion, mitigates floods, and ensures water availability in wells or boreholes used for drinking water supply, even for several successive drought years. Also, during the dry season when the water gradually recedes in the johad, the land inside the johad itself becomes available for cultivation. Copyright © 2014 IAHS Press.
Sajinkumar K.S.,Geological Survey of India |
Anbazhagan S.,Periyar University |
Pradeepkumar A.P.,University College |
Rani V.R.,Central Groundwater Board
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2011
The climatic condition of Western Ghats has influenced the process of weathering and landslides in this mountainous tract along the southwest coast of India. During the monsoon period, landslides are a common in the Western Ghats, and its intensity depends upon the thickness of the loose unconsolidated soil formed by the process of weathering. Debris landslides with a combination of saprock, saprolite and soil, indicate the role of weathering in landslide occurrences. This paper reports on how the weathering in the windward slope of Western Ghats influences the occurrence of landslides and the factors which accelerate the weathering process. Rock and soil samples were collected from the weathering profile of hornblende gniess and granite gneiss. The chemical analysis and the calculated Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) indicate the significant weathering and its possible influence on landslide occurrences in the study area. Mainly, the CIA value of lateritic soil and forest loam indicated the extent of high chemical weathering in this region. Rainfall is the dominant parameter influencing the chemical weathering process. In addition, deforestation, land use practices and soil erosion are some of the other important factors accelerating the weathering process and landslide occurrences in the region. The locations of the previous landslides superimposed on geology and soil show that most of the landslide occurrences are associated with the highly weathered zone, particularly lateritic soil and the 'severe' (rock outcrop) erodability zone. © 2011 Geological Society of India.
Nayak K.M.,Central Groundwater Board |
Sahoo H.K.,Utkal University
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering | Year: 2011
Groundwater quality investigation has been carried out in a part of Cuttack district, Orissa to assess hydrogeochemical processes and suitability of groundwater for various purposes. Results suggest that the chemistry of groundwater is characterized by both carbonate and non-carbonate hardness controlled by weathering and ion exchange. Groundwater quality is also influenced by anthropogenic activities. Groundwater is not suitable for drinking with reference to TDS, TH, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, SO 4 2-, NO 3 - and F - in some locations, while it is suitable for irrigation and industry in general. © 2011 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY.
Hydrogeologically controlled freshwater dynamics in the coastal sand dune aquifer of Ongole coast (AP), India [Contrôle hydrogéologique de la dynamique de l’eau douce dans l’aquifère de dunes de sable de la côte d’Ongole (Andhra Pradesh, Inde)]
Reddy D.V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute |
Nagabhushanam P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute |
Madhav T.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute |
Anita M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute |
Sudheer Kumar M.,Central Groundwater Board
Hydrological Sciences Journal | Year: 2014
A sand dune area, ~50 km2 in size, the only source of freshwater in the coastal zone of Prakasham district, Andhra Pradesh, India, is bounded by marine sediments in the northwest, and the Bay of Bengal in the southeast. Measurements of groundwater level, hydrochemistry and stable isotopes for three years facilitated the identification of the aquifer response to drought and intense cyclonic storms. There was no major change in hydrochemistry and isotope values between drought and highly saturated conditions, except in a few wells in the northwest. During drought, the groundwater remained fresh, although the levels dipped to 2–5 m b.m.s.l., signifying no saline water ingression (no measurable bromide). Based on the field observations, resistivity soundings, electrical conductivity and groundwater level change due to pumping, the existence of impermeable boundaries in the northwest and southeast are hypothesized. Thus, the existing hydrogeological settings appear to be inhibiting the movement of the freshwater–saline water interface into the freshwater zone. © 2014 IAHS Press.
Krishnaraj S.,University of Madras |
Muthumanickam J.,University of Madras |
K R.,Central Groundwater Board
Journal of Chemometrics | Year: 2015
In order to bring out the nature of the factors influencing lake water composition, multivariate statistical analysis and trend analysis were performed based on the hydrochemical data of the study area, namely, South Chennai. Change in land use pattern and settlements along the banks of the lakes alters the quality and quantity of the surface water. In the present study, the R-mode factor analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the geochemical parameters of the water to identify the factors affecting the chemical composition of the lake water. Dendograms of both the seasons give three major clusters, reflecting the groups of unpolluted to moderately polluted, polluted, and heavily polluted stations. The movement of stations from one cluster to another clearly brings out the seasonal variation in the chemical composition of the lake water. The complex hydrochemical data of the surface water were interpreted by condensing them into three major factors. Factor score analysis was used successfully to delineate the stations under study and the role of the contributing factors, and the nature of factors responsible for the variation in chemical composition of the water has been clearly brought out. Results of trend analysis using ArcGIS clearly indicate that the trend in water quality is deteriorating at a faster rate in the eastern part of the study area. It is understood that although natural shifts probably can account for some of the variation, it is most likely that human activities play a major role in affecting the water quality on a regional scale. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.