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Srinivasa Reddy K.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Sudheer Kumar M.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2012

Principal component analysis (PCA) is an appropriate tool for water quality evaluation and management. In the study area, PCA was used for multivariate factor analysis of hydrogeochemical variables of pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, NO3 -, F-, TH and TDS. Influence on chemical composition of groundwater quality and statistically characterize (Eigen value ≥ 1 and % of variance) two factors were extracted as well as identified, principal component-I and II. The principal component-I accounts for 36.62 and 39.80% of variance and principal component-II accounts for 17.84 and 18.10% of variance in pre and post-monsoon seasons respectively. Graphical presentation of the principal component-I and II showed loading relationship between the variables EC,TDS and Ca2+ as high positive relation; and variables between TH, Mg 2+, NO3 - and F- as low positive relation in pre-monsoon season. Principal component-I and II showed loading relationship variables between pH, as high positive relation; and variables between HCO3 - and SO4 2- as high positive relation in post monsoon seasons respectively. These two principal components results were predicted for hydrochemical process of rock water interaction, process of degradation products of the ions, process of alkalinity and process of anthropogenesis activity. It was concluded that hydrochemical process is controlled by geogenic and non-geogenic factors. Source


Srinivasa Reddy K.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Sudheer Kumar M.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB | Babu Gangidi A.,Debre Markos University
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2012

Semi-arid region of Bhaskar Rao Kunta watershed was studied to evaluate hydrogeochemical characteristics of the fractured, semi-confined and water-stressed aquifers. Twenty groundwater samples were collected from deeper bore wells during pre and post monsoon seasons in June and December 2009. The samples were analysed for concentration of physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, TDS, TH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, NO3 - and F- ). The results were interpreted with Piper, Gibbs and Wilcox diagrams. For interrelationships, the parameters were measured with correlation matrix and t-test methods. Bureau of Indian Standards specifications were used and verified for suitability of groundwater quality. The type of the groundwater quality was understood from the interpreted diagrams of Piper (85% magnesium bicarbonate and 15% mixed type of samples), Gibbs (100% evaporation type samples) and Wilcox (85% high salinity and 15% moderate salinity type of samples). The highest correlation was found between EC and TDS with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and the t-test behaviour was not significance, therefore, the geogenic and rock water interaction was negligible with respect to seasonal variation. Due to high concentration of fluoride (<1.5mg/L) and salinity (750 ≤ 2250 μS/cm), the groundwater quality was not suitable for drinking, and special drainage system and crop practices are requisite for irrigation purpose in the study area. Source


Tiwari A.N.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB | Nawale V.P.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB | Tambe J.A.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB | Satyakumar Y.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB
Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering | Year: 2010

The hydrochemical investigations of 523 groundwater samples from shallow basaltic aquifers of Maharashtra (India) have shown that the Ca/Mg ratio decreases gradually in the groundwater with increasing EC. The ratio was found high for the groundwater having EC less than 500 μS/cm representing a typical water from the basaltic aquifer having more Ca than Mg. The ratio decreases beyond EC of 500 μS/cm showing an increase in concentration of Mg as compared to Ca. The Mg concentration reaches maximum in the groundwater having EC greater than 2000 μS/cm. This decrease in Ca/Mg ratio with increase in mineralisation is possibly due to the percolation of domestic sewage and animal waste to groundwater. Source

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