Central Ground Water Board CGWB

Hyderabad, India

Central Ground Water Board CGWB

Hyderabad, India
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Ray R.K.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB | Syed T.H.,Indian School of Mines | Saha D.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB | Sarkar B.C.,Indian School of Mines | Reddy D.V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2017

Unplanned and unsustainable extraction has created stress on groundwater resources in many parts of India. The stress symptoms are more pronounced in hard rock areas, where the aquifer potentials are comparatively low. Present research targeted an area of 3000 km2 in the interstream region between the Kharun and Seonath rivers, which is one such region in Central India. In spite of being a water-stressed area, so far, little is understood about processes of recharge, amount of recharge and processes controlling chemical quality, which are key inputs for groundwater management in the area. This study presents an appraisal of recharge mechanism, recharge rate and prevailing water–rock interactions in the study area. Stable isotope composition of groundwater when compared to that of rainfall indicates monsoon rainfall as the primary source of groundwater recharge. Winter rains, which are characteristically enriched in heavier isotopes, do not contribute notably to groundwater recharge. Recharge is rapid with minor or no evaporative enrichment before recharge. Further, analysis of stable isotopes show that ‘macropore recharge’ is dominant in limestone or calcareous shale, covering more than 70% of the study area. Also apparent is the vertical connectivity amongst the aquifers. However, active intermixing of surface water and groundwater is not a predominant process. Annual groundwater recharge from rainfall, as derived from chloride mass balance, is 105.26 million cubic metre. Groundwater is predominantly of bicarbonate type, irrespective of its hydrostratigraphic (lithology) setting. Dissolution of carbonates and gypsum (occurring as veins), weathering of feldspar and ion exchange of clay minerals are amongst the most likely processes controlling the regional groundwater chemistry. © 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Extracted groundwater, 90% of which is used for irrigated agriculture, is central to the socio-economic development of India. A lack of regulation or implementation of regulations, alongside unrecorded extraction, often leads to over exploitation of large-scale common-pool resources like groundwater. Inevitably, management of groundwater extraction (draft) for irrigation is critical for sustainability of aquifers and the society at large. However, existing assessments of groundwater draft, which are mostly available at large spatial scales, are inadequate for managing groundwater resources that are primarily exploited by stakeholders at much finer scales. This study presents an estimate, projection and analysis of fine-scale groundwater draft in the Seonath-Kharun interfluve of central India. Using field surveys of instantaneous discharge from irrigation wells and boreholes, annual groundwater draft for irrigation in this area is estimated to be 212 × 106 m3, most of which (89%) is withdrawn during non-monsoon season. However, the density of wells/boreholes, and consequent extraction of groundwater, is controlled by the existing hydrogeological conditions. Based on trends in the number of abstraction structures (1982–2011), groundwater draft for the year 2020 is projected to be approximately 307 × 106 m3; hence, groundwater draft for irrigation in the study area is predicted to increase by ∼44% within a span of 8 years. Central to the work presented here is the approach for estimation and prediction of groundwater draft at finer scales, which can be extended to critical groundwater zones of the country. © 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany


Tiwari A.N.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB | Nawale V.P.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB | Tambe J.A.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB | Satyakumar Y.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB
Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering | Year: 2010

The hydrochemical investigations of 523 groundwater samples from shallow basaltic aquifers of Maharashtra (India) have shown that the Ca/Mg ratio decreases gradually in the groundwater with increasing EC. The ratio was found high for the groundwater having EC less than 500 μS/cm representing a typical water from the basaltic aquifer having more Ca than Mg. The ratio decreases beyond EC of 500 μS/cm showing an increase in concentration of Mg as compared to Ca. The Mg concentration reaches maximum in the groundwater having EC greater than 2000 μS/cm. This decrease in Ca/Mg ratio with increase in mineralisation is possibly due to the percolation of domestic sewage and animal waste to groundwater.


Srinivasa Reddy K.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Sudheer Kumar M.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB | Babu Gangidi A.,Debre Markos University
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2012

Semi-arid region of Bhaskar Rao Kunta watershed was studied to evaluate hydrogeochemical characteristics of the fractured, semi-confined and water-stressed aquifers. Twenty groundwater samples were collected from deeper bore wells during pre and post monsoon seasons in June and December 2009. The samples were analysed for concentration of physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, TDS, TH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, NO3 - and F- ). The results were interpreted with Piper, Gibbs and Wilcox diagrams. For interrelationships, the parameters were measured with correlation matrix and t-test methods. Bureau of Indian Standards specifications were used and verified for suitability of groundwater quality. The type of the groundwater quality was understood from the interpreted diagrams of Piper (85% magnesium bicarbonate and 15% mixed type of samples), Gibbs (100% evaporation type samples) and Wilcox (85% high salinity and 15% moderate salinity type of samples). The highest correlation was found between EC and TDS with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and the t-test behaviour was not significance, therefore, the geogenic and rock water interaction was negligible with respect to seasonal variation. Due to high concentration of fluoride (<1.5mg/L) and salinity (750 ≤ 2250 μS/cm), the groundwater quality was not suitable for drinking, and special drainage system and crop practices are requisite for irrigation purpose in the study area.


Srinivasa Reddy K.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Sudheer Kumar M.,Central Ground Water Board CGWB
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2012

Principal component analysis (PCA) is an appropriate tool for water quality evaluation and management. In the study area, PCA was used for multivariate factor analysis of hydrogeochemical variables of pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, NO3 -, F-, TH and TDS. Influence on chemical composition of groundwater quality and statistically characterize (Eigen value ≥ 1 and % of variance) two factors were extracted as well as identified, principal component-I and II. The principal component-I accounts for 36.62 and 39.80% of variance and principal component-II accounts for 17.84 and 18.10% of variance in pre and post-monsoon seasons respectively. Graphical presentation of the principal component-I and II showed loading relationship between the variables EC,TDS and Ca2+ as high positive relation; and variables between TH, Mg 2+, NO3 - and F- as low positive relation in pre-monsoon season. Principal component-I and II showed loading relationship variables between pH, as high positive relation; and variables between HCO3 - and SO4 2- as high positive relation in post monsoon seasons respectively. These two principal components results were predicted for hydrochemical process of rock water interaction, process of degradation products of the ions, process of alkalinity and process of anthropogenesis activity. It was concluded that hydrochemical process is controlled by geogenic and non-geogenic factors.


PubMed | Central Ground Water Board CGWB
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of environmental science & engineering | Year: 2012

The hydrochemical investigations of 523 groundwater samples from shallow basaltic aquifers of Maharashtra (India) have shown that the Ca/Mg ratio decreases gradually in the groundwater with increasing EC. The ratio was found high for the groundwater having EC less than 500 microS/cm representing a typical water from the basaltic aquifer having more Ca than Mg. The ratio decreases beyond EC of 500 microS/cm showing an increase in concentration of Mg as compared to Ca. The Mg concentration reaches maximum in the groundwater having EC greater than 2000 microS/cm. This decrease in Ca/Mg ratio with increase in mineralisation is possibly due to the percolation of domestic sewage and animal waste to groundwater.

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