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Kochetkov V.V.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve
Contemporary Problems of Ecology

This paper studies the manifestation of philopatry and dispersal in wolves at the level of family, population group (the Central Forest Reserve), and population (Tver oblast). The importance of a den area for a wolf in the formation of the territorial structure is shown. The “philopatric” behavior of 35 wolves from seven families in a completing circle of flags is analyzed: 32 individuals (16 adult and 16 young wolves from different families) crossed flags toward a den, and only three chose a different direction. This behavior was typical for the entire population group of wolves both for young individuals born and raised in this place and for adult wolves (both resident wolves and their children who have created here new pairs and then families). Attention is focused on the role of “dispersant” wolves in 1972–1982: a rapid increase in the population was caused by internal reserves due to the dispersal of juveniles for short distances. Analysis of the available field and literature data shows that dispersers “transfer” ecological, behavioral, spatial functional, and structural features of a family; i.e., they are bearers of its traditions. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Puzachenko Y.G.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Zheltukhin A.S.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve | Sandlerskiy R.B.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii

potential of discriminant analysis is demonstrated in a case study of the common marten (Martes martes L., 1758) ecological niche within the Central Forest Reserve and its buffer zone. The analysis is aimed at identifying how the probability to encounter a marten's footprint along a walking route depends on the relief and other parameters of the environment discerned by remote sensing. The analyses that were done individually for each of the eleven months from a three-year observation period have revealed the pattern of the species spatial distribution and a measure of its association with the environment to be dependent, to a large extent, on the weather conditions. In general, associations with the environment do increase under unfavorable conditions. The methods are suggested that integrate outcomes of the monthly analyses into a general map of habitat types. The technique presented has wide application opportunities in studying the ecology of populations and solving problems of practical ecology. Source

Korablev M.P.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Korablev N.P.,Russian State Agricultural University | Korablev P.N.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve | Tumanov I.L.,Western Research Institute
Zoologicheskii Zhurnal

The intrapopulation polymorphism of the pine marten Martes martes L. 1758 was investigated on the basis of five samples of skulls. Three of them were collected in the same locality in different time periods. Geographical distances between three local sampling sites varied from 60 to 240 km. The results of studying the material using phenetic (250 skulls), morphometric (151 skulls) and molecular-genetic (21 skin samples) methods allowed characterizing the pine marten as a species with the low level of polymorphism. The genetic variability (π = 0.0069 ± 0.0041 and H = 0.90 ± 0.039) is determined by relatively ancient demographic processes in the Pleistocene and Holocene related to the ice-age history of the species, their expansion, and the formation of its population in the study area. The low levels of phenetic (μ = 1.48 ± 0.056, h = 0.14 ± 0.033) and morphometric (Cv = 3.37 ± 0.41) variability, as well as the low sexual dimorphism (Isd = 9.4), indicate that the pine marten occupies a relatively narrow ecological niche and weakly competes with smaller species of mustelids. Source

Korablev N.P.,Velikie Luki State Agricultural Academy 182100 Pskov Region | Korablev P.N.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve
Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii

Taking as an example two beaver subspecies (Castor fiber orientoeuropaeus and Castor fiber belorussicus) with documented history of population formation, the patterns of morphological variability in translocated groups of mammals are studied. The variability of quantitative and qualitative traits in the formed populations is not characterized by a single direction. The main trend consists in increasing of adaptive norms diversity as related to body size. There observed a slight increase in the level of fluctuating asymmetry, reduction in polymorphism of nonmetric traits, and increase in fraction of rare aberrations. All these may be caused by inbreeding taking place during the period of prapopulations formation. The results of the study allow for considering the intraspecific differentiation as a consequence of adaptive variability (adaptatiogenesis) or subspecies hybridization. As for stochastic processes (genetic drift, founder effect), they seem to not influence the morphological variability significantly. The differences between discrete and dimensional traits are indicative of population groups' peculiarity. Source

Korablev P.N.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve | Korablev M.P.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Korablev N.P.,Velikie Luki State Agriculture Academy | Tumanov I.L.,Western Research Institute
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology

The paper describes the phenomenon of substitution of the reduced M2 with a tooth of a complex structure in the American mink Neovison vison Schreber. The anomaly is observed on three skulls out of the 574 examined (0.52%) and is characterized by a clear localization, identical structure, and symmetrical manifestation. Atypical molars have two roots, equally well-developed paraconid, eokonid, hypoconid, and a less pronounced metaconid. Some possible hypotheses for the anomaly that are considered include disruption in the development of the dental germ, mutation, and phenotypic expression of genes that are characteristic of plesiomorphic species of mustelids. The substantiated viewpoint is that the cause of this phenomenon may be the "awakening of dormant genes" as a result of destabilizing selection and hybrid dysgenesis in the area of contact of farm and feral American minks. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Source

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