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Korablev N.P.,Russian State Agricultural University | Korablev M.P.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Korablev P.N.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve | Volkov N.O.,Velikie Luki State Agricultural Academy
Russian Journal of Biological Invasions | Year: 2017

Analysis of the fragment of mtDNA D-loop (369 bp, n = 48) in wild and domestic American minks harvested in Caspian-Baltic watershed in the European part of Russia reveals a relatively high level of genetic polymorphism for introduced specimens. The values of haplotype and nucleotide polymorphism are correspondent to the level found in populations of the species inhabiting Eastern Europe (Poland). The tendency of differentiation of haplogroups is noted against the background of weak geographical or breeding structure of populations. Observed patterns of polymorphism are probably connected with peculiarities of introduction history as well as with the pool of initial DNA set of ancestors introduced in Eurasia. The domesticated form of the American mink does not differ from wild populations of the species on the basis of the used DNA marker. In wild populations of the species located at a short distance from a mink farm, haplotypes typical of domesticated minks are found. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Korablev N.P.,Russian State Agricultural University | Szuma E.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Korablev P.N.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve | Zinoviev A.V.,Tver State University
Mammal Research | Year: 2017

In total, 721 specimens from eight populations of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides across native and colonized areas have been studied. The most polymorphic populations inhabit the European part of Russia and a part of the native area. The raccoon dog from Eastern Poland and the Primorie Far East is characterized by low intrapopulational variability. Quantitative genetic variations in the studied populations indicate a relatively higher level in the population from the Primorie Far East compared to the Southern Vologda and Eastern Poland. The pattern of morphological variability in the raccoon dog is shaped by such factors as the latest phylogenetic history of the species and the structure of the morphotype frequency in the time of the divergence of the populations on both micro-and macro-geographic levels. The influence of geographic and climatic factors forms a well-pronounced trend towards diversification in tooth morphology, which is most probably the consequence of adaptations to changes in the food niche. © 2016, Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland.

Korablev M.P.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Korablev N.P.,Russian State Agricultural University | Korablev P.N.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve | Tumanov I.L.,Western Research Institute
Zoologicheskii Zhurnal | Year: 2016

The intrapopulation polymorphism of the pine marten Martes martes L. 1758 was investigated on the basis of five samples of skulls. Three of them were collected in the same locality in different time periods. Geographical distances between three local sampling sites varied from 60 to 240 km. The results of studying the material using phenetic (250 skulls), morphometric (151 skulls) and molecular-genetic (21 skin samples) methods allowed characterizing the pine marten as a species with the low level of polymorphism. The genetic variability (π = 0.0069 ± 0.0041 and H = 0.90 ± 0.039) is determined by relatively ancient demographic processes in the Pleistocene and Holocene related to the ice-age history of the species, their expansion, and the formation of its population in the study area. The low levels of phenetic (μ = 1.48 ± 0.056, h = 0.14 ± 0.033) and morphometric (Cv = 3.37 ± 0.41) variability, as well as the low sexual dimorphism (Isd = 9.4), indicate that the pine marten occupies a relatively narrow ecological niche and weakly competes with smaller species of mustelids.

Korablev N.P.,Russian State Agricultural University | Korablev M.P.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Korablev P.N.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve | Tumanov I.L.,Western Research Institute
Russian Journal of Biological Invasions | Year: 2015

Craniometrical variation is studied using 441 American mink Neovison vison Baryshnikov and Abramov, 1997 (Schreber, 1777) skulls from nine geographically isolated populations and subpopulations, including domestic minks from a fur farm, with the aim to assess the factors underlying morphological diversity. The geographic origin of populations and potential hybridization between wild minks and domesticated individuals escaping from fur farms are regarded as the main hypotheses of morphological diversity. Sexual size dimorphism is leveled by using nonparametric multidimensional scaling. The results do not show any statistically significant effect of domestic animals from fur farms on the morphological variation in wild minks. The mechanisms limiting wide-range hybridizations based on morphogenetic differences between wild and domestic populations as a result of different selection vectors (stabilizing natural selection in wild populations and breeding) are postulated. Along with such biases, wild mink populations display certain patterns that limit morphological diversity corresponding to well-known biogeography laws and modifying variation. The morphological heterogeneity of introduced populations should be considered taking into account the latest history of formation of prapopulations. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Kochetkov V.V.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve
Contemporary Problems of Ecology | Year: 2015

This paper studies the manifestation of philopatry and dispersal in wolves at the level of family, population group (the Central Forest Reserve), and population (Tver oblast). The importance of a den area for a wolf in the formation of the territorial structure is shown. The “philopatric” behavior of 35 wolves from seven families in a completing circle of flags is analyzed: 32 individuals (16 adult and 16 young wolves from different families) crossed flags toward a den, and only three chose a different direction. This behavior was typical for the entire population group of wolves both for young individuals born and raised in this place and for adult wolves (both resident wolves and their children who have created here new pairs and then families). Attention is focused on the role of “dispersant” wolves in 1972–1982: a rapid increase in the population was caused by internal reserves due to the dispersal of juveniles for short distances. Analysis of the available field and literature data shows that dispersers “transfer” ecological, behavioral, spatial functional, and structural features of a family; i.e., they are bearers of its traditions. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Puzachenko Y.G.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Zheltukhin A.S.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve | Sandlerskiy R.B.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii | Year: 2010

potential of discriminant analysis is demonstrated in a case study of the common marten (Martes martes L., 1758) ecological niche within the Central Forest Reserve and its buffer zone. The analysis is aimed at identifying how the probability to encounter a marten's footprint along a walking route depends on the relief and other parameters of the environment discerned by remote sensing. The analyses that were done individually for each of the eleven months from a three-year observation period have revealed the pattern of the species spatial distribution and a measure of its association with the environment to be dependent, to a large extent, on the weather conditions. In general, associations with the environment do increase under unfavorable conditions. The methods are suggested that integrate outcomes of the monthly analyses into a general map of habitat types. The technique presented has wide application opportunities in studying the ecology of populations and solving problems of practical ecology.

Korablev N.P.,Velikie Luki State Agricultural Academy 182100 Pskov Region | Korablev P.N.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve
Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii | Year: 2012

Taking as an example two beaver subspecies (Castor fiber orientoeuropaeus and Castor fiber belorussicus) with documented history of population formation, the patterns of morphological variability in translocated groups of mammals are studied. The variability of quantitative and qualitative traits in the formed populations is not characterized by a single direction. The main trend consists in increasing of adaptive norms diversity as related to body size. There observed a slight increase in the level of fluctuating asymmetry, reduction in polymorphism of nonmetric traits, and increase in fraction of rare aberrations. All these may be caused by inbreeding taking place during the period of prapopulations formation. The results of the study allow for considering the intraspecific differentiation as a consequence of adaptive variability (adaptatiogenesis) or subspecies hybridization. As for stochastic processes (genetic drift, founder effect), they seem to not influence the morphological variability significantly. The differences between discrete and dimensional traits are indicative of population groups' peculiarity.

Korablev N.P.,Velikie Luki State Agricultural Academy | Korablev M.P.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Korablev P.N.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve
Biology Bulletin | Year: 2011

Nine skull samples of the beaver Castor fiber, six samples of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, and 6 samples of the American mink Neovison vison were studied using phenetic and craniometric methods. Analysis of the phenofund structure suggests that in all of the studied species the emergence of novel character variations does not lead to their fixation with a significant frequency. Considerable morphological variability emerges in the contact zone of different autochtonous populations, of wild and breeding forms, as well as in geographically and reproductively isolated small groups of individuals. Morphological differences of introduced animals fit into the conception of species polymorphism and are smoothed over when separate colonies merge into metapopulations, which does not lead to the emergence of novel stable taxa. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Korablev M.P.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Korablev N.P.,Velikiye Luki State Agricultural Academy | Korablev P.N.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve
Russian Journal of Biological Invasions | Year: 2013

The morphological variability of 367 skulls of the American mink from Tver, Pskov, and Novgorod oblasts (Caspian-Baltic watershed) are investigated using quantitative and qualitative traits. Out of the six investigated samplings, five represent feral populations and one represents ranch minks. It is shown that significant morphological differences between feral mink populations exist within a relatively small area (about 250 × 350 km). Differences in the phenotype are determined by different history of the populations and by the degree of affection of escaped ranch animals. The possible consequences of interactions between the feral and ranch mink populations, which may influence the phenotype, are discussed. The morphological differences observed between the feral mink populations are lower than those theoretically expected when taking into account the considerable influence of domesticated animals. Among the possible reasons of morphological stability of skulls of feral populations of the American mink, we specify naturalization of sizes of ranch escapees under pressure of environmental conditions, as well as possible elimination of the first-generation hybrids between feral and domesticated minks owing to outbreeding depression. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Korablev N.P.,Velikie Luki State Agricultural Academy | Korablev M.P.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Rozhnov V.V.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Korablev P.N.,Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve
Russian Journal of Genetics | Year: 2011

Analysis of sequences (n = 30) of a hypervariable segment (599 bp) of the mtDNA control region in raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834, introduced into the Upper Volga basin, revealed a high level of molecular genetic variation. Two statistically significantly different haplogroups were identified. These haplogroups, however, were not associated with spatial geographic structure of the population. Phylogenetic patterns of the introduced population were associated with probable heterogeneity of autochthonous donor populations with respect to relatively large group of founders and a dramatic increase in the species number after the introduction. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

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