Central Field Crop Research Institute


Central Field Crop Research Institute

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Morgounov A.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Abugalieva A.,Kazakh Research Institute of Crops and Farming | Akan K.,Central Field Crop Research Institute | Akn B.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | And 28 more authors.
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2017

Development of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) synthetics started at CIMMYT-Mexico in 2004, when winter durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) germplasm from Ukraine and Romania was crossed with Aegilops tauschii accessions from the Caspian Sea region. Chromosomes were doubled after pollination and embryo rescue, but chromosome number and cytological validation was not performed. F2 populations were grown in Mexico and were shipped to Turkey in 2008. During 2009–2015, these populations were subjected to rigorous pedigree selection under dry, cold, disease-affected environments of the Central Anatolian Plateau. The wide segregation and partial sterility observed in 2009 gradually decreased and, by 2016, most of the F8 single spike progenies demonstrated good fertility and agronomic performance. Since 2013, lines have been selected from synthetic populations and evaluated at multiple sites. Superior lines were characterized for resistance to leaf, stripe and stem rust, plant height, and reaction to common bunt and soil-borne pathogens. Thousand kernel weight of many lines exceeded 50 g, compared with the check varieties that barely reached 40 g. Threshability of synthetic lines varied from 0 to 95%, demonstrating genetic variation for this important domestication trait. Screening against Hessian fly, sunny pest and Russian wheat aphid identified several resistant genotypes. Both durum and Aegilops parents affected synthetic wheat traits. Several studies are underway to reveal the genetic diversity of synthetic lines and the basis of resistance to diseases and insects. This synthetic germplasm represents a new winter bread wheat parental pool. It is available upon request to interested breeding/research programmes. Copyright © NIAB 2017

Olanca B.,National Food Reference Laboratory | Koksel H.,Hacettepe University | Ozderen N.T.,Central Field Crop Research Institute | Ozay D.S.,Hacettepe University
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2016

The degradation effects of wheat bug protease(s) on glutenin proteins of durum wheat cultivars were investigated by electrophoresis and modified rapid visco analyser (RVA) test. Glutenin patterns of the bug damaged durum wheats changed substantially due to bug protease(s). Although high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of three cultivars (Ege, Svevo, and Zenith) disappeared after 60 min of incubation, the HMW-GS of other two cultivars (Diyarbakir and Firat) were still visible even after the longest incubation period at medium damage level. It shows that there was an intercultivar variation in susceptibility to hydrolysis by bug proteolytic enzymes. Low molecular weight glutenin subunits of all cultivars decreased substantially after 30 min of incubation. The RVA curves indicated a clear reduction in viscosity in semolina samples with both medium and high damage levels as compared to their respective undamaged (control) samples. There were significant correlations (p < 0.001) between bug damage level and viscosities at 3 min (r = −0.765), at 4.5 min (r = −0.549) and at 10 min (r = −0.835), breakdown value (r = −0.534) and decay rate (r = 0.600). Consequently, hydrolysis rate of wheat bug protease(s) can be determined by modified RVA technique without much more chemicals, procedures and expensive equipments. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Unal S.,Central Field Crop Research Institute | Karabudak E.,Extension Service of Cankiri Province | Ocal M.B.,Variety Registration and Seed Certification Center | Koc A.,Atatürk University
Turkish Journal of Field Crops | Year: 2011

Long term mismanagement of the rangelands resulted in serious rangeland deterioration throughout Turkey. Monitoring of rangelands provides information on the status and dynamics and measures how to deal with different problems encountered. In many studies ecological interpretations are based on the observation of plant species existing on the rangeland vegetation type. The objective of this study was to determine the status and make ecological interpretations on three step rangelands of Bakirli{dotless}, Gündoǧmuş, and Karaören villages of Çanki{dotless}ri{dotless} province in the highlands of Central Anatolia. The rangeland conditions and health classes of rangelands were found the same as good and unhealthy in Bakirli{dotless}, and Gündoǧmus ̧ sites, but they were fair and unhealthy in Karaören site, respectively. Correspondence Analysis with four axis explained 55.9% of the variance of species data and Canonical Correspondence Analysis explained 38.5% of the variance of species data and 90.8% of species-environment relationship. Sound management techniques could be immediately implemented for the improvement and the manipulation of the study rangeland sites.

Unal S.,Central Field Crop Research Institute | Mutlu Z.,Central Field Crop Research Institute | Urla O.,Central Field Crop Research Institute | Sahin B.,Çankiri Karatekin University | Koc A.,Atatürk University
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry | Year: 2013

Monitoring and interpretation of the changes to the vegetation of rangelands are key functions for ecological models and sustainable management. Field work was well organized to generally represent the rangelands in the province of Nevşehir, in Central Anatolia, Turkey, in the year 2008. A modified wheel-point method with a loop was used to detect the basal cover of species of vegetation. There were 185 species in 31 sample sites throughout Nevşehir Province. Ordination analysis was performed with the Integrated System for Plant Dynamics software package, which includes detrended correspondence analysis and sample-centered principal components analysis. A gradient analysis showed that 30 sample sites represented a relatively homogeneous area, and there were 50 plant species found as promising indicators. Only 8 plant indicator species (Poa pratensis, P. alpina, Chrysopogon gryllus, Festuca valesiaca, Bromus cappadocicus, Stipa holosericea, Cynodon dactylon, and Trachynia distachya) and bare ground demonstrated clear responses along the pastoral impact gradient. For this reason, changes in the abundance of these indicators occurred on 3 management units of this ordination gradient. It is recommended that these species be used to monitor and assess trends in vegetation change and range conditions in Central Anatolia. © TÜBİTAK.

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