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Vozdova M.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Cernohorska H.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Frohlich J.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Rubes J.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute
Cytogenetic and genome research | Year: 2016

Satellite DNA is a characteristic component of mammalian centromeric heterochromatin, and a comparative analysis of its evolutionary dynamics can be used for phylogenetic studies. We analysed satellite and satellite-like DNA sequences available in NCBI for 4 species of the family Canidae (red fox, Vulpes vulpes, VVU; domestic dog, Canis familiaris, CFA; arctic fox, Vulpes lagopus, VLA; raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides, NPR) by comparative sequence analysis, which revealed 86-90% intraspecies and 76-79% interspecies similarity. Comparative fluorescence in situ hybridisation in the red fox and dog showed signals of the red fox satellite probe in canine and vulpine autosomal centromeres, on VVUY, B chromosomes, and in the distal parts of VVU9q and VVU10p which were shown to contain nucleolus organiser regions. The CFA satellite probe stained autosomal centromeres only in the dog. The CFA satellite-like DNA did not show any significant sequence similarity with the satellite DNA of any species analysed and was localised to the centromeres of 9 canine chromosome pairs. No significant heterochromatin block was detected on the B chromosomes of the red fox. Our results show extensive heterogeneity of satellite sequences among Canidae and prove close evolutionary relationships between the red and arctic fox. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Musilova P.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Drbalova J.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Cernohorska H.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Chromosome Research | Year: 2014

T cell receptor (TCR) genes (TRA/TRD, TRB and TRG) reside in three regions on human chromosomes (14q11.2, 7q34 and 7p14, respectively) and pig chromosomes (7q15.3-q21, 18q11.3-q12 and 9q21-22, respectively). During the maturation of T cells, TCR genes are rearranged by site-specific recombination. Occasionally, interlocus recombination of different TCR genes takes place, resulting in chromosome rearrangements. It has been suggested that the absolute number of these “innocent” trans-rearrangements correlates with the risk of lymphoma. The aims of this work were to assess the frequencies of rearrangements with breakpoints in TCR genes in domestic pig lymphocytes and to compare these with the frequencies of corresponding rearrangements in human lymphocytes by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome painting probes. We show that frequencies of trans-rearrangements involving TRA/TRD locus in pigs are significantly higher than the frequency of translocations with breakpoints in TRB and TRG genes in pigs and the frequencies of corresponding trans-rearrangements involving TRA/TRD locus in humans. Complex structure of the pig TRA/TRD locus with high number of potential V(D)J rearrangements compared to the human locus may account for the observed differences. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trans-rearrangements involving pig TRA/TRD locus occur at lower frequencies in γδ T cells than in αβ T lymphocytes. The decrease of the frequencies in γδ T cells is probably caused by the absence of TRA recombination during maturation of this T cell lineage. High numbers of innocent trans-rearrangements in pigs may indicate a higher risk of T-cell lymphoma than in humans. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Sebestova H.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Vozdova M.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Cernohorska H.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Chromosoma | Year: 2016

Meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes is crucial for their correct segregation into gametes and for generating diversity. We compared the frequency and distribution of MLH1 foci and RAD51 foci, synaptonemal complex (SC) length and DNA loop size in two related Bovidae species that share chromosome arm homology but show an extreme difference in their diploid chromosome number: cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60) and the common eland (Taurotragus oryx, 2nmale = 31). Compared to cattle, significantly fewer MLH1 foci per cell were observed in the common eland, which can be attributed to the lower number of initial double-strand breaks (DSBs) detected as RAD51 foci in leptonema. Despite the significantly shorter total autosomal SC length and longer DNA loop size of the common eland bi-armed chromosomes compared to those of bovine acrocentrics, the overall crossover density in the common eland was still lower than in cattle, probably due to the reduction in the number of MLH1 foci in the proximal regions of the bi-armed chromosomes. The formation of centric fusions during karyotype evolution of the common eland accompanied by meiotic chromatin compaction has greater implications in the reduction in the number of DSBs in leptonema than in the decrease of MLH1 foci number in pachynema. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Frohlich J.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Musilova P.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | Cernohorska H.,Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Mammalian Evolution | Year: 2016

The family Hippopotamidae is comprised of two genera with two living species, the common hippo (Hippopotamus amphibius) and the pygmy hippo (Choeropsis liberiensis). Unlike the common hippo, the karyotype of C. liberiensis has not yet been investigated via cross-species chromosome painting methods. We established chromosomal homologies between the pygmy hippo, pig, and cattle by fluorescence in situ hybridization using whole chromosome, arm-specific, region specific, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes. Probes from the 18 pig autosomes painted 45 conserved chromosomal segments in the pygmy hippo genome. The pygmy hippo and cattle homology map was deduced from our hybridization results of painting probes to pygmy hippo chromosomes with a combination of previously published dromedary hybridization data. On the pygmy hippo and cattle homology map, 29 cattle autosomes revealed 39 conservative segments on pygmy hippo chromosomes. For a more detailed structural analysis of genome rearrangements and X chromosome structure, we used cattle region specific and BAC probes. Our report demonstrates that cattle probes are useful not only in comparative studies within Ruminantia, but also in more phylogenetically distant Artiodactyla species. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


PubMed | Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cytogenetic and genome research | Year: 2016

Bovine embryos are now routinely used in agricultural systems as a means of disseminating superior genetics worldwide, ultimately with the aim of feeding an ever-growing population. Further investigations, common for human IVF embryos, thus have priority to improve cattle IVF, as has screening for aneuploidy (abnormal chromosome number). Although the incidence and consequences of aneuploidy are well documented in human preimplantation embryos, they are less well known for the embryos of other animals. To address this, we assessed aneuploidy levels in thirty-one 2-cell bovine embryos derived from early- and late-cleaving zygotes. Contemporary approaches ( Whole Genome Amplification and next-generation sequencing) allowed aneuploidy assessment for all chromosomes in oocytes from donors aged 4-7 years. We also quantified mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels in all blastomeres assessed, thereby testing the hypothesis that they are related to levels of aneuploidy. The overall incidence of aneuploidy in this cohort of bovine embryos was 41.1% and correlated significantly with the timing of cleavage (77.8% in late-cleaving vs. 31.8% in early-cleaving embryos). Moreover, based on mtDNA sequence read counts, we observed that the median mtDNA quantity is significantly lower in late-cleaving embryos. These findings further reinforce the use of the bovine system as a model for human IVF studies.


PubMed | Center for Assisted Reproduction and Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Reproductive biomedicine online | Year: 2014

Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) represent rare structural chromosome abnormalities frequently associated with infertility. In this study, meiotic segregation in spermatozoa of an infertile normospermic carrier of a 4-breakpoint t(1;3;6) CCR was analysed. A newly developed array comparative genomic hybridization protocol was used, and all chromosomes in 50 single sperm cells were simultaneously examined. Three-colour FISH was used to analyse chromosome segregation in 1557 other single sperm cells. It was also used to measure an interchromosomal effect; sperm chromatin structure assay was used to measure chromatin integrity. A high-frequency of unbalanced spermatozoa (84%) was observed, mostly arising from the 3:3 symmetrical segregation mode. Array comparative genomic hybridization was used to detect additional aneuploidies in two out of 50 spermatozoa (4%) in chromosomes not involved in the complex chromosome rearrangement. Significantly increased rates of diploidy and XY disomy were found in the CCR carrier compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Defective condensation of sperm chromatin was also found in 22.7% of spermatozoa by sperm chromatin structure assay. The results indicate that the infertility in the man with CCR and normal spermatozoa was caused by a production of chromosomally unbalanced, XY disomic and diploid spermatozoa and spermatozoa with defective chromatin condensation.


PubMed | Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cytogenetic and genome research | Year: 2015

Despite similar genome sizes, a great variability in recombination rates is observed in mammals. We used antibodies against SYCP3, MLH1 and centromeres to compare crossover frequency, position along chromosome arms and the effect of crossover interference in spermatocytes of 4 species from the family Bovidae (Bos taurus, 2n = 60, tribe Bovini; Ovis aries, 2n = 54, Capra hircus, 2n = 60 and Ammotragus lervia, 2n = 58, tribe Caprini). Despite significant individual variability, our results also show significant differences in both recombination rates and the total length of autosomal synaptonemal complexes (SC) between cattle (47.53 MLH1 foci/cell, 244.59 m) and members of the tribe Caprini (61.83 MLH1 foci, 296.19 m) which can be explained by the length of time that has passed since their evolutionary divergence. Sheep displayed the highest number of MLH1 foci per cell and recombination density, although they have a lower diploid chromosome number caused by centric fusions corresponding to cattle chromosomes 1;3, 2;8 and 5;11. However, the proportion of MLH1 foci observed on the fused chromosomes in sheep (26.14%) was significantly lower than on the orthologous acrocentrics in cattle (27.6%) and goats (28.2%), and their distribution along the SC arms differed significantly. The reduced recombination rate in metacentrics is probably caused by interference acting across the centromere.


PubMed | Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Proper assembly of the spindle apparatus is crucially important for faithful chromosome segregation during anaphase. Thanks to the effort over the last decades, we have very detailed information about many events leading to spindle assembly and chromosome segregation, however we still do not understand certain aspects, including, for example, spindle length control. When tight regulation of spindle size is lost, chromosome segregation errors emerge. Currently, there are several hypotheses trying to explain the molecular mechanism of spindle length control. The number of kinetochores, activity of molecular rulers, intracellular gradients, cell size, limiting spindle components, and the balance of the spindle forces seem to contribute to spindle size regulation, however some of these mechanisms are likely specific to a particular cell type. In search for a general regulatory mechanism, in our study we focused on the role of cell size and nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio in this process. To this end, we used relatively large cells isolated from 2-cell mouse embryos. Our results showed that the spindle size upper limit is not reached in these cells and suggest that accurate control of spindle length requires balanced ratio between nuclear and cytoplasmic volumes.


PubMed | Autonomous University of Barcelona and Central European Institute of Technology Veterinary Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology | Year: 2016

The recurrent occurrence of sex-autosome translocations during mammalian evolution suggests common mechanisms enabling a precise control of meiotic synapsis, recombination and inactivation of sex chromosomes. We used immunofluorescence and FISH to study the meiotic behaviour of sex chromosomes in six species of Bovidae with evolutionary sex-autosome translocations (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, Taurotragus oryx, Tragelaphus imberbis, Tragelaphus spekii, Gazella leptoceros and Nanger dama ruficollis). The autosomal regions of fused sex chromosomes showed normal synapsis with their homologous counterparts. Synapsis in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) leads to the formation of characteristic bivalent (in T. imberbis and T. spekii with X;BTA13/Y;BTA13), trivalent (in T. strepsiceros and T. oryx with X/Y;BTA13 and G. leptoceros with X;BTA5/Y) and quadrivalent (in N. dama ruficollis with X;BTA5/Y;BTA16) structures at pachynema. However, when compared with other mammals, the number of pachynema lacking MLH1 foci in the PAR was relatively high, especially in T. imberbis and T. spekii, species with both sex chromosomes involved in sex autosome translocations. Meiotic transcriptional inactivation of the sex-autosome translocations assessed by H2AX staining was restricted to their gonosomal regions. Despite intraspecies differences, the evolutionary fixation of sex-autosome translocations among bovids appears to involve general mechanisms ensuring sex chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination and inactivation.

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