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Blumenschein G.R.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Ciuleanu T.,Oncological Institute Ion Chiricuta | Robert F.,Central European Cooperative Oncology Group CECOG | Groen H.J.M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND:: This randomized, double-blind, multicenter study evaluated sunitinib plus erlotinib versus placebo plus erlotinib. Subjects with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer had received prior treatment with a platinum-based regimen. Here, we report safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of the combination of sunitinib and erlotinib. METHODS:: Lead-in subjects in this phase II study received sunitinib 37.5 mg/d and erlotinib 150 mg/d. Safety, including dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs, cohort 1 only), pharmacokinetic profiles, and antitumor activity were investigated (cohorts 1 and 2). RESULTS:: Thirty patients were evaluated. The combination of sunitinib and erlotinib was tolerable. Diarrhea (76.9%), fatigue (61.5%), and decreased appetite (53.8%) were the most frequent adverse events in cohort 1; and diarrhea (52.9%) and rash (41.2%) were the most frequent adverse events in cohort 2. DLTs were observed (fatigue, n = 2 and paronychial inflammation, n = 1) in three of 13 patients evaluated for DLTs. Geometric mean ratios for the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under plasma concentration-time profile from time 0 to 24 hours of erlotinib with and without sunitinib were 1.05 and 1.03, respectively. Corresponding values for sunitinib with and without erlotinib were 0.62 and 0.62 for sunitinib, 2.13 and 2.07 for SU12662; and 0.81 and 0.79 for total drug. Three patients experienced partial response as per response evaluation criteria in solid tumor. CONCLUSION:: A dosage of sunitinib 37.5 mg/d concurrently with erlotinib 150 mg/d was tolerable and established the recommended combinatorial dose in subjects with platinum-refractory non-small-cell lung cancer. Coadministration of sunitinib with erlotinib does not affect the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib, but may result in decreased exposure to sunitinib. Copyright © 2012 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.


Miles D.,Mount Vernon Cancer Center | Zielinski C.,Medical University of Vienna | Zielinski C.,Central European Cooperative Oncology Group CECOG | Martin M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Both capecitabine and bevacizumab are established agents in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, but until recently clinical data supporting their use in combination were limited. We review available data on the capecitabine-bevacizumab combination in breast cancer, particularly results from the RIBBON-1 trial in the first-line setting, and we discuss these findings in light of previous studies. We also examine ongoing trials investigating capecitabine-bevacizumab combination therapy. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gridelli C.,Sg Moscati Hospital | Brodowicz T.,Central European Cooperative Oncology Group CECOG | Brodowicz T.,Medical University of Vienna | Langer C.J.,University of Pennsylvania | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Lung Cancer | Year: 2012

A widely held misperception contends that all elderly patients, even those with good performance status (PS 0-1), are unable to tolerate aggressive chemotherapy. The objective of these analyses was to evaluate the survival and safety of treatment with pemetrexed in elderly patients with nonsquamous Non-Small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and PS 0-1. Two randomized studies, 1 reporting the activity of pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin vs. cisplatin and gemcitabine in chemotherapy-naive patients (N = 1725) and another comparing single-agent pemetrexed with placebo in the maintenance setting (N = 663) were retrospectively considered. Data from patients with nonsquamous advanced NSCLC with PS 0-1 in these studies were evaluated in 2 separate dichotomous analyses (< 65 years and < 65 years and < 70 years and < 70). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate covariate-adjusted between-arm hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals for each age group. In the first-line study, 32.7% of the 1252 patients with nonsquamous NSCLC were < 65 years and 12.8% were < 70 years old. In the maintenance study, 33.1% of the 481 patients with nonsquamous NSCLC were < 65 years and 16.0% were < 70 years old. In both studies, the adjusted HRs for overall survival (range, 0.62-0.89) favored pemetrexed and were similar between the older and younger age groups. Dose intensity delivered and toxicities observed for patients treated with pemetrexed were manageable and similar between the older and younger age groups. For elderly patients with nonsquamous advanced NSCLC and PS 0-1, pemetrexed therapy, with its favorable toxicity profile, is a viable option, either in combination with cisplatin in the first-line setting or as maintenance therapy after initial chemotherapy. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Zielinski C.,Medical University of Vienna | Zielinski C.,Central European Cooperative Oncology Group CECOG | Lang I.,National Institute of Oncology | Beslija S.,University of Sarajevo | And 8 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Background:Correlations between development of hand-foot syndrome (HFS) and efficacy in patients receiving capecitabine (CAP)-containing therapy are reported in the literature. We explored the relationship between HFS and efficacy in patients receiving CAP plus bevacizumab (BEV) in the TURANDOT randomised phase III trial.Methods:Patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer (LR/mBC) who had received no prior chemotherapy for LR/mBC were randomised to BEV plus paclitaxel or BEV-CAP until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. This analysis included patients randomised to BEV-CAP who received ≥1 CAP dose. Potential associations between HFS and both overall survival (OS; primary end point) and progression-free survival (PFS; secondary end point) were explored using Cox proportional hazards analyses with HFS as a time-dependent covariate (to avoid overestimating the effect of HFS on efficacy). Landmark analyses were also performed.Results:Among 277 patients treated with BEV-CAP, 154 (56%) developed HFS. In multivariate analyses, risk of progression or death was reduced by 44% after the occurrence of HFS; risk of death was reduced by 56%. The magnitude of effect on OS increased with increasing HFS grade. In patients developing HFS within the first 3 months, median PFS from the 3-month landmark was 10.0 months vs 6.2 months in patients without HFS. Two-year OS rates were 63% and 44%, respectively.Conclusions:This exploratory analysis indicates that HFS occurrence is a strong predictor of prolonged PFS and OS in patients receiving BEV-CAP for LR/mBC. Early appearance of HFS may help motivate patients to continue therapy. © 2016 Cancer Research UK.


Thallinger C.,Vienna University Hospital | Lang I.,National Institute of Oncology | Kuhar C.G.,Institute of Oncology Ljubljana | Bartsch R.,Vienna University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2016

Background: Vinorelbine constitutes effective chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and acts synergistically with trastuzumab in HER-2/neu positive disease. The present study was set out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vinorelbine when combined with lapatinib, an anti-HER2 tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, as late-line regimen administered beyond previous disease progression on prior lapatinib in patients with HER-2/neu- positive MBC. Methods: The CECOG LaVie study was designed as open-labeled, single-arm, multicenter phase II trial. Patients had to be pretreated with lapatinib plus chemotherapy, and received lapatinib at a daily dose of 1250 mg in combination with vinorelbine 20 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 and 8 of a three-week cycle until disease progression, intolerable toxicity or withdrawal of consent. Progression-free survival (PFS) was defined as primary study endpoint; secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), response rate according to RECIST 1.1, and safety. The study was terminated early due to poor accrual. Results: A total number of nine patients were included; lapatinib administered beyond disease progression combined with vinorelbine resulted in a median PFS of 7.7 months (95 % CI 0.56-14.91) and a median OS of 23.4 months (95 % CI 16.61-30.13), respectively. Partial remission was seen in one of nine patients, three patients had stable disease of > six months, whereas the remaining five patients had primary disease progression. In two patients, modification of vinorelbine dose due to toxicity became necessary; no dose modification was needed for lapatinib. The majority of reported adverse events (AE) were grade 1 and 2 in severity with diarrhea being the most commonly observed AE Conclusion: In this heavily pretreated patient population, combination of vinorelbine plus lapatinib showed encouraging activity and was characterized by an acceptable safety profile. Despite the low patient number, lapatinib plus vinorelbine may constitute a potential treatment option in heavily pretreated patients with HER-2/neu-positive MBC previously exposed to lapatinib. Trial registration: EudraCT number 2009-016826-15, (15. 10.2009) © 2016 Thallinger et al.


PubMed | Central European Cooperative Oncology Group CECOG, National Institute of Oncology, Palacky University, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC cancer | Year: 2016

Vinorelbine constitutes effective chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and acts synergistically with trastuzumab in HER-2/neu positive disease. The present study was set out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vinorelbine when combined with lapatinib, an anti-HER2 tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, as late-line regimen administered beyond previous disease progression on prior lapatinib in patients with HER-2/neu- positive MBC.The CECOG LaVie study was designed as open-labeled, single-arm, multicenter phase II trial. Patients had to be pretreated with lapatinib plus chemotherapy, and received lapatinib at a daily dose of 1250 mg in combination with vinorelbine 20 mg/m(2) i.v. on days 1 and 8 of a three-week cycle until disease progression, intolerable toxicity or withdrawal of consent. Progression-free survival (PFS) was defined as primary study endpoint; secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), response rate according to RECIST 1.1, and safety. The study was terminated early due to poor accrual.A total number of nine patients were included; lapatinib administered beyond disease progression combined with vinorelbine resulted in a median PFS of 7.7 months (95% CI 0.56-14.91) and a median OS of 23.4 months (95% CI 16.61-30.13), respectively. Partial remission was seen in one of nine patients, three patients had stable disease of > six months, whereas the remaining five patients had primary disease progression. In two patients, modification of vinorelbine dose due to toxicity became necessary; no dose modification was needed for lapatinib. The majority of reported adverse events (AE) were grade 1 and 2 in severity with diarrhea being the most commonly observed AE CONCLUSION: In this heavily pretreated patient population, combination of vinorelbine plus lapatinib showed encouraging activity and was characterized by an acceptable safety profile. Despite the low patient number, lapatinib plus vinorelbine may constitute a potential treatment option in heavily pretreated patients with HER-2/neu-positive MBC previously exposed to lapatinib.EudraCT number 2009-016826-15, (15. 10.2009).


PubMed | Medical University of Graz, Institutul Oncologic Ion Chiricuta and UMF Iuliu Hatieganu, University of Zagreb, Central European Cooperative Oncology Group CECOG and Medical University of Vienna
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase II | Journal: Clinical colorectal cancer | Year: 2015

This updated analysis of the CECOG/CORE 1.2.002 study investigated the association between clinical outcome and RAS and BRAF mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with FOLFOX4 plus cetuximab.Available DNA samples from CECOG/CORE 1.2.002 study patients with KRAS exon 2 wild type (wt) (at codons 12 and 13) tumors were screened for mutations at other loci in the KRAS and NRAS (RAS) coding regions by Sanger sequencing, and for BRAF codon 600 mutations by Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing. Clinical outcome was compared among different mutation subgroups.Of 152 KRAS wt mCRC patients, 148 were evaluable for RAS and BRAF mutation status. Eleven RAS mutations were detected in 10 patients tumors (7%). BRAF mutations were detected in 14 patients tumors (9%). RAS and BRAF tumor mutations were mutually exclusive. Compared with patients with RAS wt/BRAF wt tumors (n = 124; median overall survival, 28.5 months), those with RAS mutations (n = 10; median, 16.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.89; P = .020) or BRAF mutations (n = 14; median, 11.7 months; hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.41; P < .0001) had worse overall survival, which remained significant (P < .04) when adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics among the mutation subgroups.These findings support those from recent studies that RAS and BRAF mutations are associated with poor outcome in patients receiving an epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted monoclonal antibody in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Furthermore, mutation testing should not only include RAS codons 12 and 13 but should also be extended to the entire coding regions.


Zielinski C.,Central European Cooperative Oncology Group CECOG | Zielinski C.,Medical University of Vienna | Knapp S.,Center for Molecular Medicine | Knapp S.,Medical University of Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Treatments of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-particularly of the squamous subtype-are limited. In this article, we describe the immunomodulatory environment in NSCLC and the potential for therapeutic targeting of the immune system through cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune-checkpoint pathway blockade. Materials and methods: We searched PubMed and presented abstracts for publications describing the clinical benefit of checkpoint blockade in NSCLC. Results: Antibody-mediated checkpoint molecule blockade is being investigated in NSCLC, and of these approaches, the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab has undergone the most extensive clinical study. By targeting the immune system rather than specific antigens, checkpoint blockade agents differ from vaccine therapy. In a phase II study in advanced NSCLC, phased ipilimumab with chemotherapy demonstrated the greatest efficacy in squamous NSCLC. A phase I study of nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, has suggested that this agent is also active against squamous and non-squamous NSCLC. Ongoing phase III studies are evaluating the therapeutic potential of these agents. Conclusions: Although treatment options for NSCLC are limited, a better understanding of the immune profile of this disease has facilitated the development of immunotherapeutics that target checkpoint blockade molecules, and clinical evaluation to date supports combining checkpoint blockade with chemotherapy for squamous NSCLC. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.


Zielinski C.,Medical University of Vienna | Zielinski C.,Central European Cooperative Oncology Group CECOG | Gralow J.,University of Washington | Martin M.,Hospital Clinico San Carlos
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2010

While 'targeted' drugs often take centre stage when considering developments in breast cancer, improved understanding, administration and use of chemotherapeutic agents also contribute to better outcomes for women with metastatic breast cancer. Moreover, these developments offer the potential for further improvements when chemotherapy and targeted agents are combined. In this article, we focus on capecitabine dosing in advanced breast cancer, review the available data and discuss the implications of this evidence on best treatment practice both for chemotherapy alone and for chemotherapy when combined with biological agents. It appears that a capecitabine starting dose of 1000mg/m2 twice daily enables treatment to be administered for longer periods, providing continuous exposure to cytotoxic therapy and thus prolonging the duration of disease control. Although no randomised data are available comparing different doses of capecitabine, the cumulative evidence supports this approach. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Central European Cooperative Oncology Group CECOG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: ESMO open | Year: 2016

This educational video discusses and visualises the key steps of the complex interaction between cancer and the immune system. Essential steps of the cancer immune cycle take place in the tumour itself and in regional lymph nodes, with immune cells travelling between these distinct sites. Antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells migrate into the tumour microenvironment and take up tumour antigens. Antigen-presenting cells travel to regional lymph nodes, where they present the tumour antigens to nave T cells in order to initiate a tumour-specific T cell response. Activated tumour-specific T cells multiply by clonal expansion and enter the blood flow and travel from the regional lymph node to the tumour site. As soon as activated T cells arrive at the tumor site they start a tumour-specific immune response. Co-inhibitory receptors modulate the immune response and may be exploited by tumour cells to escape immunological destruction. In summary, the cancer immune cycle involves several pivotal steps that are essential for generation of a successful specific antitumour immune response. Importantly, dysfunction of a single step may interrupt the entire cycle, thus impairing the immune-mediated control of tumour growth. Immune modulatory therapies such as vaccines or immune checkpoint modulators target specific steps of the cancer immune cycle with the ultimate aim of facilitating an antitumour immune response.

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