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Nikolenyi A.,University of Szeged | Uhercsak G.,University of Szeged | Csenki M.,University of Szeged | Hamar S.,University of Szeged | And 6 more authors.
Pathology and Oncology Research

There is a need for the selection of those breast cancers where benefit may be attained from the addition of an anthracycline to the adjuvant chemotherapy. The expression of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) protein in 3 cohorts of breast cancers treated with adjuvant dose-dense anthracycline-based chemotherapy was determined retrospectively. The TOP2A status was analysed in relation with the other standard tumour features and the outcome. TOP2A IHC results were assessable in 106 patients: with a cut-off value of 15%, 48% of the tumours were classified as TOP2A-positive. The expression of TOP2A correlated with that of Ki67 (R∈=∈0.532, p∈<∈0.001) and a high grade (p∈=∈0.04), but did not correlate with the proportion of ER- or PR-positive cells in the tumour. More tumors were TOP2A-negative among the ER- or PR-positive cancers than among the ER/PR-negative cancers (p∈=∈0.021 and p∈=∈0.002, respectively). After a median follow-up time of 64.5 months, 31 relapses (23.5%) and 23 deaths (17.4%) had occurred in 131 patients. The overall survival was longer in the TOP2A-positive cases than in the TOP2A-negative cases. The recurrence-free survival and the overall survival were significantly more favourable in the ER/PR-negative and TOP2A-positive tumours than in other subgroups. In a Cox proportional hazards model, the grade and TOP2A remained significant determinants in the ER/PR-negative subgroup. TOP2A positivity and grade 3 indicated a decrease in the risk of death with HR∈=∈0.211 (95% CI: 0.042-1.05, p∈=∈0.056) and HR∈=∈0.216 (95% CI: 0.047-0.990, p∈=∈0.048), respectively. A higher sensitivity to anthracycline- containing regimens is suggested in ER/PR-negative and TOP2A-positive cancers. © 2011 Arányi Lajos Foundation. Source

Nikolenyi A.,University of Szeged | Uhercsak G.,University of Szeged | Ormandi K.,Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged Ltd. | Lazar G.,University of Szeged | And 3 more authors.

Objectives: Individualized chemotherapy for breast cancer improves the outcome. Anthracyclines target the enzyme topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A). We set out to perform a retrospective study of the presence of gene abnormalities and the expression of TOP2A in a cohort of breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Methods: Forty-three patients with 45 breast cancers were treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel-epirubicin with/without capecitabine chemotherapy. The TOP2A status of the cancers, determined retrospectively by fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, was analyzed in relation to the standard clinical and pathological data. Results: Clinically and pathologically complete remission (pCR) was achieved in 15 (33.3%) and 9 (20%) cases, respectively. The TOP2A gene was amplified in 2 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive cancers (8%), and 32 (84.2%) overall exhibited TOP2A expression in >15% of the cells. The expression of TOP2A exhibited a strong correlation with the expression of Ki67 (R = 0.743, p < 0.001), and was negatively correlated with estrogen receptors (ER; R = 0.404, p = 0.012) and progesterone receptors (R = 0.430, p = 0.007). The expression of TOP2A was not related to the amplification of the TOP2A gene or the HER2 status of the tumor. The proportions of Ki67-and TOP2A-positive tumor cells were significantly reduced after chemotherapy (56.1 ± 23.6 vs. 19.0 ± 27.7%, p = 0.004, and 41.0 ± 27.9 vs. 12.7 ± 24.8%, p < 0.001, respectively). The development of pCR was related to a high grade (p = 0.054), ER negativity (p = 0.027) and high TOP2A expression (p = 0.037). The expression of TOP2A was an independent predictor of pCR (OR = 1.460, for every 10% increase, 95% CI: 1.016-2.096, p = 0.041). After a median follow-up time of 31.0 months, neither relapse-free survival nor overall survival was related to the tumor response. Conclusions: TOP2A expression is a marker of the tumor's proliferation rate and sensitivity to anthracycline-based chemotherapy, and does not depend on the amplification of its gene. © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

von Minckwitz G.,Neu Isenburg and University Womens Hospital | Puglisi F.,University of Udine | Cortes J.,University of Barcelona | Vrdoljak E.,University of Split | And 13 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology

Background: Combining bevacizumab with first-line or second-line chemotherapy improves progression-free survival in HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. We assessed the efficacy and safety of further bevacizumab therapy in patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer whose disease had progressed after treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. Methods: In this open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients who had HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer that had progressed after receiving 12 weeks or more of first-line bevacizumab plus chemotherapy from 118 centres in 12 countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by use of a central interactive voice response system using a block randomisation schedule (block size four) stratified by hormone receptor status, first-line progression-free survival, selected chemotherapy, and lactate dehydrogenase concentration, to receive second-line single-agent chemotherapy either alone or with bevacizumab (15 mg/kg every 3 weeks or 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks). Second-line therapy was continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. At progression, patients randomly assigned to chemotherapy alone received third-line chemotherapy without bevacizumab; those randomly assigned to bevacizumab continued bevacizumab with third-line chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival from randomisation to second-line progression or death in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is ongoing, and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01250379. Findings: Between Feb 17, 2011, and April 3, 2013, 494 patients were randomly assigned to treatment (247 in each group). The median duration of follow-up at the time of this prespecified primary progression-free survival analysis was 15·9 months (IQR 9·1-21·7) in the chemotherapy-alone group and 16·1 months (10·6-22·7) in the combination group. Progression-free survival was significantly longer for those patients treated with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy than for those with chemotherapy alone (median: 6·3 months [95% CI 5·4-7·2] vs 4·2 months [3·9-4·7], respectively, stratified hazard ratio [HR] 0·75 [95% CI 0·61-0·93], two-sided stratified log-rank p=0·0068). The most common grade 3 or more adverse events were hypertension (33 [13%] of 245 patients receiving bevacizumab plus chemotherapy vs 17 [7%] of 238 patients receiving chemotherapy alone), neutropenia (29 [12%] vs 20 [8%]), and hand-foot syndrome (27 [11%] vs 25 [11%]). Grade 3 proteinuria occurred in 17 (7%) of 245 patients receiving combination therapy and one (<1%) of 238 patients receiving chemotherapy alone. Serious adverse events were reported in 61 (25%) of 245 patients receiving bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus 44 (18%) of 238 patients receiving chemotherapy alone. Interpretation: These results suggest that continued VEGF inhibition with further bevacizumab is a valid treatment option for patients with locally recurrent or metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer whose disease was stabilised or responded to first-line bevacizumab with chemotherapy. Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Brodowicz T.,Medical University of Vienna | Brodowicz T.,Central European Cooperative Oncology Group | Ciuleanu T.,Institute of Oncology | Crawford J.,Duke University | And 20 more authors.
Annals of Oncology

The current third consensus on the systemic treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) builds upon and updates similar publications on the subject by the Central European Cooperative Oncology Group (CECOG), which has published such consensus statements in the years 2002 and 2005 (Zielinski CC, Beinert T, Crawford J et al. Consensus on medical treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer-update 2004. Lung Cancer 2005; 50: 129-137). The principle of all CECOG consensus is such that evidence-based recommendations for state-of-the-art treatment are given upon which all participants and authors of the manuscript have to agree (Beslija S, Bonneterre J, Burstein HJ et al. Third consensus on medical treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2009; 20 (11): 1771-1785). This is of particular importance in diseases in which treatment options depend on very particular clinical and biologic variables (Zielinski CC, Beinert T, Crawford J et al. Consensus on medical treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer-update 2004. Lung Cancer 2005; 50: 129-137; Beslija S, Bonneterre J, Burstein HJ et al. Third consensus on medical treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2009; 20 (11): 1771-1785). Since the publication of the last CECOG consensus on the medical treatment of NSCLC, a series of diagnostic tools for the characterization of biomarkers for personalized therapy for NSCLC as well as therapeutic options including adjuvant treatment, targeted therapy, and maintenance treatment have emerged and strongly influenced the field. Thus, the present third consensus was generated that not only readdresses previous disease-related issues but also expands toward recent developments in the management of NSCLC. It is the aim of the present consensus to summarize minimal quality-oriented requirements for individual patients with NSCLC in its various stages based upon levels of evidence in the light of a rapidly expanding array of individual therapeutic options. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

Scagliotti G.,University of Turin | Brodowicz T.,Central European Cooperative Oncology Group | Brodowicz T.,Medical University of Vienna | Shepherd F.A.,University of Toronto | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology

INTRODUCTION: Recently, histology has emerged as a predictive factor for pemetrexed efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These analyses evaluate whether the differential efficacy of pemetrexed by NSCLC histology is reproducible and consistent across three registration studies of different lines of therapy (first-line/second-line and maintenance settings). METHODS: The reported studies for patients with advanced NSCLC were pemetrexed versus docetaxel in previously treated patients (N = 571), cisplatin plus pemetrexed versus cisplatin plus gemcitabine in chemotherapy-naive patients (N = 1725), and maintenance pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care (N = 663). Cox models of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were used to test for a significant treatment-by-histology interaction (THI). A significant THI indicates that the efficacy benefit for pemetrexed relative to the control arm is greater in patients with nonsquamous histology than in those with squamous histology. Subsequent Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios for OS and PFS according to histology. RESULTS: Histology was well balanced between treatment arms in each study. Across all three studies, no clinically relevant differences were observed for the safety profile of pemetrexed among histologic groups. THIs were statistically significant in all three studies for OS (p = 0.001, 0.002, and 0.033, respectively) and PFS (p = 0.004, 0.002, and 0.036, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These analyses demonstrate a statistically significant interaction between treatment effect and NSCLC histology, indicating superior efficacy of pemetrexed in nonsquamous patients compared with other standard treatment options. Thus, histology is consistently predictive of the improved efficacy of pemetrexed in patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. Copyright © 2010 by the international Association fot the Study of lung Cancer. Source

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