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Csernus O.,Central Environmental and Food Science Research Institute | Pomazi A.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Magyar I.,Corvinus University of Budapest
Acta Alimentaria | Year: 2014

Initiated by the Association "Wine Route of Etyek Wine District", the objectives of this study were to isolate and identify autochthonous yeast strains from local wines and to determine their oenologically important properties. The first aim of this work was to characterize the taxonomic and phenotypic diversity of the representative Saccharomyces yeast strains that dominate the spontaneous fermentations in this wine district. The results obtained by molecular ribotyping (ARDRA) revealed a strong dominance of S. cerevisiae, but S. bayanus var. uvarum was also present sporadically. Some of the natural isolates exhibited high volatile acid production or poor fermentation capacity, which imply a quality risk in spontaneous fermentations. Most of the isolates, however, displayed good oenological features during lab scale fermentations. As the second aim of this work, the most promising, selected strains were further tested for oenological properties in microvinification scale and, finally, in large scale fermentations. The analytical and sensory analysis proved that selected strains, including S. bayanus var. uvarum, can be used as local starter cultures, which may contribute to the typicality of the local wines in comparison with commercial starters.

Krifaton C.,Szent Istvan University | Kriszt B.,Szent Istvan University | Risa A.,Szent Istvan University | Szoboszlay S.,Szent Istvan University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to screen microbes for their zearalenone degrading potential and to select microbes whose activities do not create toxic or endocrine disrupting metabolites. Bioluminescent bioreporters (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES and BLYR) were successfully used to monitor toxin degradation; the results of zearalenone biodegradation experiments were confirmed by parallel chemical analysis (HPLC-FLD) and immunoanalytical (ELISA) tests. Using the BLYES/BLYR bioreporters, the most appropriate microbes (ones that produced minimal toxic products and products with lower estrogenic potential) could be selected. The most promising strains belong to Streptomyces and Rhodococcus genera. Our findings demonstrate the benefit of using biological tests beside the analytical method, since bioreporters were able to monitor the samples for toxicity and estrogenic potential even after substantial degradation. We conclude that the BLYES/BLYR bioreporter system is a cost effective, fast and reliable tool for screening zearalenone-degrading microbes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Banati D.,Central Environmental and Food Science Research Institute
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

Hansen L.S.,University of Aarhus | Lovei G.L.,University of Aarhus | Szekacs A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Szekacs A.,Central Environmental and Food Science Research Institute
Pest Management Science | Year: 2013

Background: The effect of transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) containing a lepidopteran-specific Bt toxin on a stored-product pest, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and its parasitoid, Lariophagus distinguendus Förster, was examined in the laboratory to test the impact of transgenic maize on stored-product pests and their biological control. Results: Weevils were not harmfully affected by transgenic Bt maize in their development characteristics (development time, body mass), and females emerging from transgenic maize kernels were larger. However, significantly fewer parasitoid females emerged from weevils that developed in transgenic kernels, although parasitoids did not develop more slowly and were not different in size or mass from their conspecifics emerging from hosts in non-transgenic maize kernels. Conclusion: The emergence of female parasitoids was reduced in transgenic Bt maize, and this effect cannot be explained by the known lepidopteran-specific toxicity of Bt Cry1Ab toxin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Paszti-Gere E.,Szent Istvan University | Barna R.F.,Szent Istvan University | Kovago C.,Szent Istvan University | Szauder I.,Cardiosens Center | And 4 more authors.
Inflammation | Year: 2015

The effect of oxidative stress on barrier integrity and localization of transmembrane serine proteinase 2 (TMPRSS2) were studied using porcine epithelial IPEC-J2 cells on membrane inserts. Increased paracellular permeability of FITC-dextran 4 kDa (fluorescence intensity 43,508 ± 2,391 versus 3,550 ± 759) and that of gentamicin (3.41 ± 0.06 % increase to controls) were measured parallel with the reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (23.3 ± 4.06 % decrease) of cell layers 6 h after 1 h 1 mM H2O2 treatment. The immunohistochemical localization of adherens junctional β-catenin was not affected by reactive oxygen species (ROS) up to 4 mM H2O2. Peroxide-triggered enhanced paracellular permeability of IPEC-J2 cell layer was accompanied by predominantly cytoplasmic occurrence of TMPRSS2 embedded in cell membrane under physiological conditions. These results support that ROS can influence paracellular gate opening via multifaceted mode of action without involvement of β-catenin redistribution in adherens junction. Altered distribution pattern of TMPRSS2 and relocalized transmembrane serine protease activity may contribute to weakening of epithelial barrier integrity under acute oxidative stress. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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