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PubMed | National Research Institute for Ayurveda Siddha Human Resource Development and Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic science
Type: | Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

The leaves of Chenopodium album Linn. are traditionally used for correction of kidney diseases and urinary stones. The present work investigated the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Chenopodium album on experimentally-induced urolithiasis in rats to substantiate its traditional use as antilithiatic agent.The leaf extract was standardized by HPLC. Urolithiasis was induced in rats by administration of 0.75% v/v of ethylene glycol (EG) in distilled water and in addition, vehicle or methanol (CAME) or aqueous (CAAE) extract of the leaves of Chenopodium album each in the dose 100, 200 and 400mg/kg or Cystone (750mg/kg) were administered daily orally for 28 days. Urolithiasis was assessed by estimating the calcium, phosphorus, urea, uric acid, and creatinine in both urine and plasma. The volume, pH and oxalate levels were also estimated in urine. The renal oxalate content was estimated in kidney while calcium oxalate deposits were observed histologically.The treatment with CAME or CAAE for 28 days significantly attenuated the EG-induced elevations in the urine and plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, urea, uric acid and creatinine along with decrease in urine volume, pH and oxalates. The treatments also decreased renal tissue oxalate and deposition of oxalate crystals in kidney due to EG treatment. The effects of CAME and CAAE were comparable to standard antilithiatic agent, cystone. The findings indicate the preventive effect of CAME and CAAE which can be due to inhibitory effect on crystallization and stone dissolution. The effect was attributed to the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids and saponins.In conclusion, Chenopodium album leaves exhibited antilithiatic effect and validates its ethnomedicinal use in urinary disorders and kidney stones.

Kishore R.K.,National Ayurveda Dietetics Research Institute | Abhishekh H.A.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Udupa K.,Toronto Western Hospital | Thirthalli J.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Asian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Introduction: Ayurveda (Indian-complimentary and alternative medicine) is still most sought after in India and has promising potential in management of Vishada [major depressive disorder (MDD)]. But, systematic research is lacking. In this study we evaluated of influence of ayurvedic treatment (Panchakarma and Ayushman-15) on psychopathology, heart rate variability (HRV) and endocrinal parameters in patients with major depression. Methods: 81 drug naive patients diagnosed as Vishada by ayurvedic physician and MDD according to DSM IV-TR were given ayurvedic Virechana module (therapeutic purgation) and were randomized into two groups. Patients in group A (n= 41) received Ayushman-15A while group B (n= 40) received Ayushman-15B for two months and Shirodhara (forehead-oil pouring therapy). Patients were assessed with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were estimated at baseline and after ayurvedic therapy. HRV and endocrinal parameters were compared with age and gender matched healthy volunteers. Results: HRV parameters showed significant sympathetic dominance in patients compared to healthy volunteers. Two months of ayurvedic treatment significantly decreased psychopathology, showed increase in vagal tone, decrease in sympathetic tone and reduced cortisol levels. However, there was no significant difference between groups receiving Ayushman A and B. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for antidepressant, cardiac (HRV) and beneficial neuroendocrine modulatory influence of Ayurveda therapy in patients of Vishada (MDD). Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Greater insight into the neurobiology behind this therapy might provide valuable information about newer drug target. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | National Research Institute for Ayurveda Siddha Human Resource Development, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic science and Jiwaji University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine | Year: 2016

Chandraprabha vati is a classical Ayurvedic formulation, markedly used for mitigation of Prameha, which correlates in many ways with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus.The present study was aimed to investigate effect of Chandraprabha vati in experimentally-induced hyperglycemia and lipid profile alterations.Antidiabetic effect of Chandraprabha vati was studied in fifty five Wistar rats. Graded doses of Chandraprabha vati (50, 100 and 200mg/kg) were administered orally for 7 days to normal and alloxan-hyperglycemic rats (65mg/kg, intravenously), and to glucose loaded normal rats for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Fasting plasma glucose levels were assessed on different time intervals along with plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Metformin (500mg/kg, orally) was used as standard drug.Chandraprabha vati did not cause any significant reduction in plasma glucose levels of normal rats (p>0.05) but normalized the impaired glucose tolerance at 60 and 120 min (p<0.05-p<0.001) in OGTT when compared to vehicle control. In alloxan-hyperglycemic rats, administration of Chandraprabha vati (200mg/kg) significantly reduced plasma glucose at 3h, 12h, 3rd day and 7th day (p<0.01-p<0.001) along with reduction in cholesterol and triglycerides levels (p<0.01-p<0.001) when compared to diabetic control group. The effects were comparable with metformin.Chandraprabha vati exhibited anti-hyperglycemic effect and attenuated alterations in lipid profile. The results support the use of Chandraprabha vati for correction of Prameha in clinical practice.

PubMed | University of Kuala Lumpur, National Research Institute for Ayurveda Siddha Human Resource Development, Government Kamla Raja Girls Post Graduate Autonomous College, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic science and Shobhit University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of intercultural ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

The tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Family-Araceae), commonly called suran or jimikand, has medicinal and food value. It is used in ethnomedicinal practices for correction of gastrointestinal disturbances such as constipation and hemorrhoids. The present study evaluated the effect of A. paeoniifolius tuber on gastrointestinal motor functions.The tuber was collected in December 2011, and its methanolic extract was standardized with the major phenolic compound, betulinic acid, by high-performance liquid chromatography. Rats were orally administered methanolic (APME) or aqueous (APAE) extract (250 and 500 mg/kg, each) of tuber for 7 days. Metoclopramide (MET) (3 mg/kg, orally) was used a reference prokinetic drug. The gastrointestinal parameters viz. number of feces, wet and dry weight and moisture content of feces, gastric emptying, and intestinal transit were evaluated. The isolated tissue preparations were used to check the effect of the extracts on fundus and intestinal contractility. The glucomannan and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined spectrophotometrically.The pre-treatment of extracts significantly increased the number of feces, wet and dry weight of feces, moisture content, gastric emptying, and intestinal transit. Results were comparable to MET. Further, APME and APAE showed a contraction of fundus and ileum in isolated preparations. APME and APAE were also found to have fair amount of glucomannan, total phenolics, and flavonoids. The results indicate the gastrokinetic potential of the tuber extracts. This may be attributed to the presence of glucomannan and betulinic acid present in the extracts.In conclusion, the tuber of A. paeoniifolius exhibits gastrokinetic activity and substantiates its traditional use in gastrointestinal motor disturbances.

PubMed | National Research Institute for Ayurveda Siddha Human Resource Development and Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine | Year: 2016

Over exploitation of many traditional medicinal plants like Myrica esculenta has become a threat and in the near future, many medicinal plants may be unavailable for use of industry.Present study outlines the concept of plant part substitution. Stem bark and small branches of M. esculenta are compared on the basis of physicochemical analysis, phytochemical analysis, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to evaluate the possibilities of using small branches in place of stem bark.Physicochemical parameters and preliminary phytochemical screening were carried out using standard methods. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride method, respectively. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with semi-automatic applicator was used for HPTLC profiling. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of stem bark and small branches were developed in suitable mobile phase using standard procedures and visualized in UV 254 and 366nm and in white light after derivatization within anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent.Phytochemical analysis and HPTLC profile of different extracts showed the presence of almost similar phytochemicals in both stem bark and small branches.Similarities in phytochemical analysis and HPTLC profile of various extracts suggests that small branches may be used in place of stem bark. The study provides the base for further study to use small branches as a substitute of stem bark of M. esculenta.

Shenoy S.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Chaskar U.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Sandhu J.S.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Paadhi M.M.,Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic science
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Cycling is an endurance sport relying mainly on aerobic capacity to provide fuel during long-duration cycling events. Athletes are constantly searching for new methods to improve this capacity through various nutritional and ergogenic aids. Purpose: The aim of the study was to find out the effect of Ashwagandha on the cardiorespiratory endurance capacity, that is, aerobic capacity of elite Indian cyclists. Materials and Methods: Forty elite (elite here refers to the participation of the athlete in at least state-level events) Indian cyclists were chosen randomly and were equally divided into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 500 mg capsules of aqueous roots of Ashwagandha twice daily for eight weeks, whereas the placebo group received starch capsules. Outcome Measures: The baseline treadmill test for the cyclists were performed to measure their aerobic capacity in terms of maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2 max), metabolic equivalent, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and total time for the athlete to reach his exhaustion stage. After eight weeks of supplementation, the treadmill test was again performed and results were obtained. Results: There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, whereas the placebo group did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, namely, VO 2 max (t = 5.356; P < 0.001), METS (t = 4.483; P < 0.001), and time for exhaustion on treadmill (t = 4.813; P < 0.001) in comparison to the placebo group which did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. Conclusion: Ashwagandha improved the cardiorespiratory endurance of the elite athletes.

Singh V.,Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University | Rana R.K.,Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic science | Singhal R.,Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic science
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2013

Statistics is an integral part of Clinical Trials. Elements of statistics span Clinical Trial design, data monitoring, analyses and reporting. A solid understanding of statistical concepts by clinicians improves the comprehension and the resulting quality of Clinical Trials. In biomedical research it has been seen that researcher frequently use t-test and ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest irrespective of the nature of the data. In Clinical Trials we record the data on the patients more than two times. In such a situation using the standard ANOVA procedures is not appropriate as it does not consider dependencies between observations within subjects in the analysis. To deal with such types of study data Repeated Measure ANOVA should be used. In this article the application of One-way Repeated Measure ANOVA has been demonstrated by using the software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 15.0 on the data collected at four time points 0 day, 15 th day, 30 th day, and 45 th day of multicentre clinical trial conducted on Pandu Roga (~Iron Deficiency Anemia) with an Ayurvedic formulation Dhatrilauha.

PubMed | Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ayu | Year: 2013

Vamana Karma (therapeutic emesis) primarily a Samshodhana Karma (purification procedure) is one of the five Pradhana Karmas (chief procedures) of Panchakarma. It is mentioned in Ayurvedic texts that a person after Samyak Vamana (proper Vamana) experiences lightness of the body, Hrit (precordium), Kantha (throat/voice), and Shirah (head) and weakness. This procedure is effectively used in healthy and ailing persons for purification of body and extraction of Doshas (especially Kapha) in Ayurvedic system. It has been found worth to observe the physiological and biochemical changes during Vamana and after the procedure to understand the effect/safety margins of the procedure in healthy volunteers.

PubMed | Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of applied & basic medical research | Year: 2014

Missing data is frequently encountered in clinical studies. Unfortunately, they are often neglected or not properly handled during data analysis and this may significantly bias the results of the study, reduce study power and lead to invalid conclusions. Substantial instances of missing data are a serious problem that undermines the scientific trustworthiness of causal conclusions from clinical trials. The assumption that statistical analysis methods can compensate for such missing data is not justified. Hence aspects of clinical trial design that limit the probability of missing data should be an important objective, while planning a clinical trial. In addition to specific aspects of trial design, many components of clinical trial conduct can also limit the extent of missing data. The topic of missing data is often not a major concern until it is time for data collection and data analysis. This article discusses some basic issues about missing data as well as prospective watch outs which could reduce the occurrence of missing data. It provides some possible design considerations that should be considered in order to alleviate patients from dropping out of a clinical trial. In addition to these the concept of the missing data mechanism has also been discussed. Three types of missing data mechanisms missing completely at random, missing at random and not missing at random have been discussed in detail.

PubMed | Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic science
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Journal of separation science | Year: 2012

Arjunic acid and arjunolic acid are main bioactive components of Terminalia arjuna stem bark and reported for various biological activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of arjunic and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna was investigated with developed and validated HPLC-PDA method, which resulted in the isolation of a novel anticancer molecule i.e. arjunic acid. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and volume of extraction solvents, microwave power, microwave extraction time, on the extraction efficiencies of arjunic, and arjunolic acid from stem bark of T. arjuna were evaluated. The optimal extraction conditions identified were 5.0 g quantity of stem bark powder, 20 mL of ethyl acetate, preleaching time 10 min, microwave power 600 W, temperature 65C, and microwave irradiation time 5 min. The results showed that MAE is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumptions than reported methods. The HPLC-PDA analysis method was developed and validated to have good linearity, precision, sensitivity, and accuracy. MAE-HPLC-PDA is a faster, convenient, and appropriate method for isolation and determination of arjunic acid and arjunolic acid in the stem bark of T. arjuna.

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