Central Coffee Research Institute

Chikmagalūr, India

Central Coffee Research Institute

Chikmagalūr, India
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Mote K.,Central Coffee Research Institute | Rao V.P.,Telangana University | Ramulu V.,Telangana University | Kumar K.A.,Telangana University
Vegetos | Year: 2016

Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) is an irrigation technique where water is applied to the field a number of days after disappearance of ponded water. The treatments consisted of continuous submergence besides AWD irrigation regimes with two ponded water depths of 3 and 5 cm and drop in ponded water levels in field water tube below ground level to 5, 10 and 15 cm depth. The eight treatments were laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The irrigation water applied effective rainfall and seasonal volume of water input varied from 708 to 1390 mm, 216 to 300 mm and 1048 to 1646 mm, respectively on pooled basis. Irrigation water applied in AWD irrigation regimes amounted to 50.9 to 82.1% of continuous submergence (1390 mm).Water stress parameters viz., relative water content (90.00 to 91.81% in 2013 and 92.19 to 92.77% in 2014) and leaf water potential (10.0 to 11.8 –bars in 2013 and 10.3 to 12.6 –bars in 2014) reflecting plant water balance were higher in continuous submergence depth of 3 cm from transplanting to PI and 5 cm from PI to PM, comparable values of RWC and LWP were also registered when the crop was flooded to a water depth of 5 cm between 15 DAT to PM as and when ponded water level drops to 5 cm BGL in field water tube and 10 cm BGL in field water tube. Likewise in AWD irrigation regime flooding to a water depth of 3 cm from 15 DAT to PI and 5 cm from PI to PM as and when ponded water level drops to 15 cm BGL in field water tube markedly lower the relative water content and leaf water potential. © 2016, SciTechnol, All Rights Reserved.

Machenahalli S.,Central Coffee Research Institute | Nargund V.B.,University of Agricultural science | Byadgi A.S.,University of Agricultural science | Hegde Y.,University of Agricultural science
Vegetos | Year: 2016

Fruit rot and die-back diseases are major yield limiting factor in all chilli growing areas of India. Integrated management of chilli fruit rot disease during kharif 2012 and 2013 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad, Karnataka, indicated that adoptive module including seed treatment with carboxin + thiram at 2 g/kg, seedling dip in P. fluorescens (10 g/l), spray with neem oil (10 ml/l), hexaconazole, propicoanzole (0.1%) and carbendazim + mancozeb (0.2%) showed least seedling infection (7.06%), die-back incidence (1.21%) and severity (9.30 PDI), fruit rot incidence (4.47%), severity (2.68 PDI) with high dry chilli yield (8.92 q/ha) and C:B ratio (2.44). © 2016, SciTechnol, All Rights Reserved.

Venkatesh U.,Bharathiar University | Javarasetty C.,Central Coffee Research Institute | Murari S.K.,P.A. College
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch (WT), commonly known as yellow dots or creeping daisy, is a shrub possessing potent biological activities, and is traditionally used a medicinal plant in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems of medicines, and it has also been tried against leukemia cell line MEG- 01. In the present study, purification and screening of the plant was done for bioactive compounds in methanolic extract of WT for apoptotic and anti-leukemia activity.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanolic extract of WT was initially purified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and screened for the apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities. The positive band of TLC was subjected to silica gel column chromatography for further purification and the fractions obtained from it were screened again for anti-leukemia activity through thymidine uptake assay and apoptotic activity by DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining and flow cytometry assays. The fraction with positive result was subjected to HPLC for analysis of bioactive components.RESULTS: Out of many combinations of solvents, the methanol and dichloromethane combination in the ratio 6:4 has revealed two bands in TLC, among which the second band showed positive results for apoptotic and anti-leukemic activities. Further purification of second band through silica gel chromatography gave five fractions in which the 3rd fraction gave positive results and it shows single peak during compositional analysis through HPLC.CONCLUSION: The single peak revealed through HPLC indicates the presence of pure compound with apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities encouraging for further structural analysis.

Bharatha Nandhini R.M.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Rahul R.N.,Andhra University | Thilaga S.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Rao N.S.P.,Central Coffee Research Institute | Ganesh D.,Madurai Kamaraj University
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Interspecific C. ×. R hybrid (Coffea congensis×. Coffea canephora) in India is cultivated as mixed population with male parent C. canephora as this species is an efficient pollen donor for enhanced yield. But distinction of C. ×. R hybrid from C. canephora in old plantation is difficult due to varying plant sizes of C. ×. R hybrid and often resembles with C. canephora. C. ×. R hybrid cultivated under different agroclimatic conditions show distinct vegetative growth pattern with varying yields. Thus development of DNA marker for identification of C. ×. R hybrid is important for clonal propagation and seed preparation from selective individuals. In this study, two DNA bar coding loci of chloroplast genome (rbcL and matK) of parents, F1 hybrid and its back cross progeny were partially sequenced to identify SNPs as DNA marker for distinction of C. ×. R hybrid from C. canephora. Seven SNPs in the matK gene sequence and three nucleotides in the rbcL gene sequence were identified as DNA markers for the genetic identity of C. congensis. These SNPs were found in F1 and advanced progenies of C. ×. R hybrid due to maternal inheritance. Large number of samples of C. ×. R hybrids with varying morphological features revealed no polymorphism among C. ×. R hybrid and C. congensis. Thus, the SNPs in C. congensis can be used as DNA markers for precise identification of C. ×. R hybrid for production of clones besides tagging the chloroplast inheritance in advanced progenies. © 2013 South African Association of Botanists.

Divakara S.T.,University of Mysore | Santosh P.,Central Coffee Research Institute | Aiyaz M.,University of Mysore | Venkata Ramana M.,Defence Food Research Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Fusarium spp. are not only pathogenic to plants but are also known as toxin producers that negatively affect animal and human health. The identification of Fusarium spp. remains one of the most critical issues in fungal taxonomy. In this study, different strains of Fusarium spp. were isolated from sorghum seed samples and identified at the molecular level by tef-1α gene amplification. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to differentiate toxigenic and non-toxigenic Fusarium spp. by designing a primer for the Fum21 gene along with the Fum1 and Fum8 genes. A competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA) was employed to assess the fumonisin-producing ability of Fusarium spp. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using partial sequences of tef-1α and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers of different Fusarium spp. RESULTS: All 27 isolates of Fusarium spp. were positive for the tef-1α gene and revealed the presence of F. verticillioides, F. thapsina and F. cf. incarnatum-equiseti complex. The standardized mPCR assay distinguished toxigenic and non-toxigenic F. verticillioides. Further, mPCR fumonisin-positive F. verticillioides isolates were also positive by CD-ELISA. The tef-1α gene sequence was found to be useful in revealing intraspecific polymorphism to some extent. ISSR markers revealed a high level of polymorphism among different isolates of Fusarium spp., and the dendrogram of ISSR analyses grouped the 27 isolates into two major clusters. CONCLUSION: The present method provided rapid and reliable detection of fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. The mPCR assay could be an alternative strategy to current conventional mycotoxin analytical techniques and a reliable tool for high-throughput monitoring of major mycotoxin-producing fungi during the processing steps of food and feed commodities. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

Garcia C.A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Garcia C.A.,French Institute of Pondicherry | Bhagwat S.A.,University of Oxford | Ghazoul J.,ETH Zurich | And 6 more authors.
Conservation Biology | Year: 2010

The new approaches advocated by the conservation community to integrate conservation and livelihood development now explicitly address landscape mosaics composed of agricultural and forested land rather than only protected areas and largely intact forests. We refer specifically to a call by Harvey et al. (2008) to develop a new approach based on six strategies to integrate biodiversity conservation with sustainable livelihoods in Mesoamerican landscape mosaics. We examined the applicability of this proposal to the coffee agroforests of the Western Ghats, India. Of the six strategies, only one directly addresses livelihood conditions. Their approach has a clear emphasis on conservation and, as currently formulated risks repeating the failures of past integrated conservation and development projects. It fails to place the aspirations of farmers at the core of the agenda. Thus, although we acknowledge and share the broad vision and many of the ideas proposed by this approach, we urge more balanced priority setting by emphasizing people as much as biodiversity through a careful consideration of local livelihood needs and aspirations. ©2009 Society for Conservation Biology.

PubMed | De Montfort University and Central Coffee Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical life sciences research | Year: 2014

Transgenic rice plants were generated using particle bombardment to introduce the Agrobacterium cytokinin biosynthesis gene driven by Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) senescence specific promoter (SAG12) for delaying leaf senescence. Using two plasmids we co-transformed one week old embryogenic calli derived from mature Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) variety Chin Guang. The selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) gene and the reporter gene B--glucuronidase (uidA), both under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter were placed on the same co-integrate vector whereas the cytokinin biosynthesis gene, isopentenyl transferase (ipt) driven by the SAG12 promoter is supplied in another plasmid. A total of 32 transgenic rice plants were regenerated of which 27 plants were randomly selected for histochemical -glucuronidase (GUS) assay, PCR and Southern blot analysis. Co-integration frequencies of 88% and 69% were obtained for two linked genes (uidA and hph) and two unlinked genes (hph and ipt gene) respectively in R0 plants. Southern blot analysis confirmed the results of histochemical GUS assay and PCR amplifications. A complex integration pattern for all the transgenes including the multiple copies integration was predominantly observed.

Mishra M.K.,Central Coffee Research Institute | Suresh N.,Central Coffee Research Institute | Bhat A.M.,Central Coffee Research Institute | Suryaprakash N.,Central Coffee Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2011

In Coffea arabica (Arabica coffee), the phenotypic as well as genetic variability has been found low because of the narrow genetic basis and self fertile nature of the species. Because of high similarity in phenotypic appearance among the majority of arabica collections, selection of parental lines for inter-varietals hybridization and identification of resultant hybrids at an early stage of plant growth is difficult. DNA markers are known to be reliable in identifying closely related cultivars and hybrids. Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) is a new molecular marker technology developed based on PCR. In this paper, sixty arabica-hybrid progenies belonging to six crosses were analyzed using 31 highly polymorphic SRAP markers. The analysis revealed seven types of SRAP marker profiles which are useful in discriminating the parents and hybrids. The number of bands amplified per primer pair ranges from 6.13 to 8.58 with average number of seven bands. Among six hybrid combinations, percentage of bands shared between hybrids and their parents ranged from 66.29% to 85.71% with polymorphic bands varied from 27.64% to 60.0%. Percentage of hybrid specific fragments obtained in various hybrid combinations ranged from 0.71% to 10.86% and ascribed to the consequence of meiotic recombination. Based on the similarity index calculation, it was observed that F1 hybrids share maximum number of bands with the female parent compared to male parent. The results obtained in the present study revealed the effectiveness of SRAP technique in cultivar identification and hybrid analysis in this coffee species.

Mishra M.K.,Central Coffee Research Institute | Nishani S.,Central Coffee Research Institute | Jayarama,Central Coffee Research Institute
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

The identification and genetic relationships of 23 coffee species and one coffee-related species Canthium diccocum were studied using ISSR and SRAP markers. The average polymorphism information content of SRAP primers (0.81) was lower than ISSR primers (0.86), whereas the average resolving power of the SRAP primers (9.74) is higher than the ISSR primers (8.64). The genetic similarity among the species ranged from 0.30 to 0.89 using ISSR and 0.11 to 0.90 using SRAP marker systems. Based on marker analysis, all twenty three coffee species were clustered into two major groups. Both the markers amplified species-specific fragments and are useful in genetic diversity analysis of coffee.

PubMed | Bangalore University and Central Coffee Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Molecular biology international | Year: 2015

Coffea canephora exhibit poor root system and are very sensitive to drought stress that affects growth and production. Deeper root system has been largely empirical as better avoidance to soil water limitation in drought condition. The present study aimed to identify molecular markers linked to high root types in Coffea canephora using molecular markers. Contrasting parents, L1 valley with low root and S.3334 with high root type, were crossed, and 134 F1 individuals were phenotyped for root and associated physiological traits (29 traits) and genotyped with 41 of the 320 RAPD and 9 of the 55 SSR polymorphic primers. Single marker analysis was deployed for detecting the association of markers linked to root associated traits by SAS software. There were 13 putative RAPD markers associated with root traits such as root length, secondary roots, root dry weight, and root to shoot ratio, in which root length associated marker OPS1850 showed high phenotypic variance of 6.86%. Two microsatellite markers linked to root length (CPCM13400) and root to shoot ratio (CM211300). Besides, 25 markers were associated with more than one trait and few of the markers were associated with positively related physiological traits and can be used in marker assisted trait selection.

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