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Genant H.K.,University of California at San Francisco | Genant H.K.,SYNARC Inc. | Libanati C.,Amgen Inc. | Engelke K.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 11 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2013

In the FREEDOM study, denosumab treatment (60. mg every 6. months) decreased bone resorption, increased bone mineral density (BMD), and reduced new vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fractures over 36. months in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. In a subset of these women, hip quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was performed at baseline and months 12, 24, and 36. These scans were analyzed using Medical Image Analysis Framework (MIAF) software, which allowed assessment of total hip integral, trabecular, subcortical, and cortical compartments; the cortical compartment was further divided into 2 areas of interest (outer and inner cortex). This substudy reports changes in BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) from baseline and compared placebo with denosumab over 36. months of treatment (placebo N=26; denosumab N=36). Denosumab treatment resulted in significant improvements in total hip integral volumetric BMD (vBMD) and BMC from baseline at each time point. At month 36, the mean percentage increase from baseline in total hip integral vBMD and BMC was 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively (both p. <. 0.0001). These gains were accounted for by significant increases in vBMD and BMC in the trabecular, subcortical, and cortical compartments. In the placebo group, total hip integral vBMD and BMC decreased at month 36 from baseline by 1.5% and 2.6%, respectively (both p. <. 0.05). The differences between denosumab and placebo were also significant at months 12, 24, and 36 for integral, trabecular, subcortical, and cortical vBMD and BMC (all p. <. 0.05 to <. 0.0001). While the largest percentage differences occurred in trabecular vBMD and BMC, the largest absolute differences occurred in cortical vBMD and BMC. In summary, denosumab significantly improved both vBMD and BMC from baseline and placebo, assessed by QCT MIAF, in the integral, trabecular, subcortical, and cortical hip compartments, all of which are relevant to bone strength. © 2013. Source

Olszewska M.,Medical University of Warsaw | Warszawik O.,Central Clinical Hospital MSWiA | Rakowska A.,Central Clinical Hospital MSWiA | Slowinska M.,Central Clinical Hospital MSWiA | And 2 more authors.
Endokrynologia Polska | Year: 2010

Hair loss may accompany several endocrine disorders, including hypopituitarism, hypothyreosis, hyperthyreosis, hypoparathyroidism, diabetes mellitus, growth hormone deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, polycystic ovary syndrome, SAHA syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing syndrome, or virilising tumours. Most patients with endocrine disorders present with diffuse non-scarring alopecia, such as anagen effluvium, telogen effluvium or androgenetic alopecia. Focal non-scarring alopecia, such as alopecia areata coexisting with autoimmune thyroiditis, is less frequent and scarring alopecia is a rare finding in patients with endocrine abnormalities. In some cases an endocrine disorder may be suspected based on dermatological findings during hair loss evaluation. Classic methods of hair evaluation include hair weighing, pull test, wash test, the trichogram, and histopathological examination. Newly developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques include the phototrichogram, trichoscan, trichoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy. Source

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