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Gupta V.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Gupta V.K.,King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals | Singh L.P.,Central Building Research Institute | Chandra S.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | And 3 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2011

Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based membranes of N,N-bis-succinamide-based dendritic molecule with tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) as a cation inhibitor and dibutylphthalate (DBP), dioctylphthalate (DOP), dibutyl (butyl) phosphonate (DBBP) and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared and used as nitrate ion-selective electrodes. Optimum performance was observed with the membrane having I-PVC-TBAB-DBP in the ratio 1:33:1:65 (w/w). The electrode has a linear response to nitrate with a detection limit of 3.9 × 10-5 ± 0.07 M and Nernstian compliance (57.0 ± 0.2 mV/decade) between pH 2.8 and 9.6 with a fast response time of about 20 s. The selectivity coefficient values of the order of 0.001 for mono-; bi- and trivalent anions; indicate high selectivity for nitrate ions over these anions. The preparation procedure of the electrode is very easy and inexpensive. The electrodes were used over a period of 45 days with good reproducibility. The analytical usefulness of the proposed electrode has been evaluated by its application in the determination of nitrate ions in waste water samples. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Gupta V.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Sethi B.,P.A. College | Upadhyay N.,Lovely Professional University | Kumar S.,P.A. College | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Electrochemical Science | Year: 2011

The construction, performance characteristics and application of a novel iron(III) membrane sensor based on a new S-methyl N-(methylcarbamoyloxy) thioacetimidate are reported in this paper. The designed sensor exhibited a wide linear response with a slope of 21.2 mV per decade over the concentration range of 9.1x10-6-1.0x10-1 M. The potentiometric response is independent on the pH of the solution in the range of 3.2-4.8. The electrode shows a response time of 20 s. The proposed electrode can be used for at least two months without any considerable divergence in potentials. It exhibits very good selectivity relative to a wide variety of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The developed sensor was used for the quantitative determination of Fe(III) in tap and mineral water samples. The electrode assembly was also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Fe3+ with EDTA. © 2011 by ESG.


Sethi B.,P.A. College | Chandra S.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Kumar S.,P.A. College | Singh R.,Dbs Degree College | Singh L.P.,Central Building Research Institute
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based membranes of silacrown end grafted carbosilane dendrimer (I) with sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) as an anion inhibitor and dibutylphthalate (DBP), dioctylphthalate (DOP), dibutyl (butyl) phosphonate (DBBP) and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared and used as Na+-selective electrodes. Optimum performance was observed with the membrane having I-PVC-NaTPB-DOP in the ratio 1:33:1:65 (w/w). The electrode works well over a wide concentration range 1.5 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-1 M with Nernstian compliance 56.0 mV/decade between pH 5.8 and 9.2 with a fast response time of about 15 s. The selectivity relative to alkali, alkaline earth and transition heavy metal ions is good. The selectivity coefficient values towards potassium ions have been calculated to be 2.3 × 10-4 by utilizing Fixed Interference Method. The proposed electrode could be used for at least 2 months without considerable alteration in its potential. The effect of nonionic surfactants Tween 20, Tween 80, Triton X 100, Span 20 and Span 60 on the potentiometric properties of the sodium selective membrane was also studied. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Gupta R.,Uttarakhand Technical University | Yadav P.K.,Central Building Research Institute
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2016

All practical real-time scheduling algorithm in distributed processing environment present a trade-off between their computational intricacy and performance. In real-time system, tasks have to perform correctly and timely. Finding minimal schedule in distributed processing system with constrains is shown to be NP- Hard. Systematic allocation of task in distributed real-time system is one of the major important parameter to evaluate the performance if this step is not execute properly the throughput of the system may be decrease. In this paper, a fuzzy clustering-based algorithm has been discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016.


Panda K.C.,ITER | Bhattacharyya S.K.,Central Building Research Institute | Barai S.V.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

The focus of the present paper is on the study of the effect of transverse steel on the performance against shear and modes of failure of simply supported reinforced concrete (RC) T-beams strengthened in shear zone with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheet. Eighteen RC T-beams of 2.5 m span with and without transverse steel reinforcement are cast at the structural laboratory of IIT Kharagpur. Nine beams are used as control beam specimens in three different stirrups spacing such as without stirrups and with stirrups at 200 mm and 300 mm spacing and rest nine beams are strengthened in shear zone with GFRP sheet in U-jacket, side bonded and U-jacket with anchorage in each type of stirrups spacing. All the beams are tested in 300 Ton Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The test result clearly demonstrates the GFRP sheet in U-jacket with anchorage is much more effective than the U-jacket scheme. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Panigrahi S.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Deb A.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Bhattacharyya S.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Bhattacharyya S.K.,Central Building Research Institute
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2016

The effect of laminate thickness on crack pattern, mode of failure, and strength of shear deficient reinforced concrete (RC) T-beams wrapped with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates was studied experimentally and numerically. Eight specimens of 2.5 m span, designed to fail in shear, were tested for two point static loading. Displacements, strains, and crack pattern were monitored. The strength and mode of failure were found to depend on the crack pattern. For U wraps, increasing the fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) laminate thickness resulted in reduced web cracking and increased cracking near the free edge of the laminate. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Ghosh S.,National Institute of Technology Agartala | Saran S.K.,Central Building Research Institute
Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2010

In this paper an attempt is being made to get the dynamic active earth pressure considering cohesion, adhesion, surcharge and weight components together. For this, Culmann's graphical construction has been modified. © 2010 ejge.


Bhatnagar A.,Central Building Research Institute | Bhatnagar A.,Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences | Minocha A.K.,Central Building Research Institute | Sillanpaa M.,Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences
Biochemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of lemon peel waste for the removal of cobalt ions from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were performed to study the adsorption of cobalt on lemon peel adsorbent. The maximum adsorption capacity of lemon peel adsorbent for cobalt removal was ca. 22 mg g-1. Three simplified kinetic models viz. pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Weber and Morris intraparticle diffusion models were tested to describe the adsorption process. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium sorption capacities, and related correlation coefficients for kinetic models were determined. It was found that the present system of cobalt adsorption on lemon peel adsorbent could be described more favorably by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process has been found to be exothermic. The results of the present study suggest that lemon peel waste can be used beneficially in treating industrial effluents containing heavy metal ions. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Singh M.,Central Building Research Institute
Indian Concrete Journal | Year: 2013

The characterization of ground granulated blast furnace slag, fluorogypsum anhydrite and cement clinker used for formulating the super-sulphated cement (SSC) is discussed. It shows that about 65 to 75 % of granulated slag can be blended with 20% of anhydrite and 10 to 15% cement clinker to form super-sulphated cement. The strength development in the super-sulphated cement is attributed to the formation of ettringite, CSH and dicalcium hydrate. The initial strength development in SSC is due to the formation of tricalcium sulphoaluminate and C-S-H whereas the later age strength is attributed to the formation of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H ). The power consumption for grinding slag is considerably higher than that for cement clinker. Additional power is also required in various operations such as winning, crushing, grinding of raw materials and running of rotary kiln in the manufacture of cement clinker. The heat of hydration determined at 7 and 28 days of SSC comply with the requirements specified by the Indian standard specification IS 6909.


Thapliyal P.C.,Central Building Research Institute
Composite Interfaces | Year: 2010

Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) are a new class of polymer blends in network form in which at least one component is polymerized and/or cross-linked in the immediate presence of the other. IPNs possess several interesting characteristics in comparison to normal polyblends, because the varied synthetic techniques yield IPNs of such diverse properties that their engineering potential spans a broad gamut of modern technology. Interpenetrating polymer networks have shown excellent chemical resistance, hardness, elongation, tensile strength properties and higher compatibility. Hence, it can be concluded that using the IPN concept, it is possible to design the most desirable material for a specific end use requirement. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

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