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Malabo, Equatorial Guinea

Li J.,Hubei University | Chen J.,The Chinese Medical Aid Team to the Republic of Equatorial Guinea | Xie D.,The Chinese Medical Aid Team to the Republic of Equatorial Guinea | Monte-Nguba S.-M.,Medical laboratory | And 9 more authors.
Pathogens and Global Health | Year: 2014

Objective: Drug resistance against Plasmodium falciparum has been recognized as the crucial obstacle to curbing mortality and morbidity from malaria. To investigate the distribution and pattern of multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene polymorphisms in P. falciparum, isolates collected from the malaria highendemic Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.Methods: Blood samples were collected from 217 patients with P. falciparum malaria during rainy season in 2012 on Bioko Island. These samples were extracted using Chelex to obtain parasite DNA. Nestpolymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were employed to detect mutations (N86Y, E130K, Y184F, S1034C, N1042D, V1109I, and D1246Y) and haplotypes in pfmdr1 gene.Results: A total of 151 samples were successfully detected for pfmdr1 mutations from the 217 patients. Pfmdr1 mutations were found in 91.39% (138/151) P. falciparum isolates. However, no mutation at 130 and 1109 was identified from these samples. Four haplotypes coding 86, 184, 1034, 1 042, and 1 246 were found including NYSND, YYSND, NFSND, and YFSND, which accounted for 8.61% (13/151), 2.65% (4/ 151), 29.80% (45/151), and 58.94% (89/151), respectively.Conclusions: Our results exhibited hypersensitivity to lumefantrine (LU) and mefloquine (MQ) and resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) in P. falciparum isolates from Bioko Island. This information will be useful for anti-malarial drug policy in Equatorial Guinea. © 2014, Maney Publishing. All rights reserved. Source

Lin M.,Shantou University | Lin M.,Southern Medical University | Yang L.Y.,Southern Medical University | De Xie D.,Chinese Medical Aid Team to the Republic of Equatorial Guinea | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and hemoglobinopathies were the inherited conditions found mostly in African. However, few epidemiological data of these disorders was reported in Equatorial Guinea (EQG). This study aimed to assess the prevalence and healthy effects of G6PD deficiency and hemoglobinopathies among the people on malaria endemic Bioko Island, EQG. Materials and Methods: Blood samples from 4,144 unrelated subjects were analyzed for G6PD deficieny by fluorescence spot test (FST), high-resolution melting assay and PCR-DNA sequencing. In addition, 1,186 samples were randomly selected from the 4,144 subjects for detection of hemoglobin S (HbS), HbC, and α-thalassemia deletion by complete blood count, PCR-DNA sequencing and reverse dot blot (RDB). Results: The prevalence ofmalaria and anemia was 12.6%(522/4,144) and 32.8% (389/1,186), respectively. Overall, 8.7%subjects (359/4,144) were G6PD-deficient by FST, including 9.0% (249/2,758) males and 7.9%(110/1,386) females. Among the 359 G6PD-deficient individuals molecularly studied, the G6PD A-(G202A/A376G) were detected in 356 cases (99.2%), G6PD Betica (T968C/A376G) in 3 cases. Among the 1,186 subjects, 201 cases were HbS heterozygotes, 35 cases were HbC heterozygotes, and 2 cases were HbCS double heterozygotes; 452 cases showed heterozygous α-thalassemia 3.7 kb deletion (-α3.7 kb deletion) and 85 homozygous - α3.7 kb deletion. The overall allele frequencies were HbS 17.1% (203/1186); HbC, 3.1%(37/1186); and -α3.7 kb deletion 52.4%(622/1186), respectively. Conclusions: High G6PD deficiency in this population indicate that diagnosis and management of G6PD deficiency is necessary on Bioko Island. Obligatory newborn screening, prenatal screening and counseling for these genetic disorders, especially HbS, are needed on the island. © 2015 Lin et al. Source

Zhan X.H.,Hanshan Normal University | Zha G.C.,Hanshan Normal University | Jiao J.W.,Hanshan Normal University | Zheng Y.Z.,Hanshan Normal University | And 12 more authors.
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine | Year: 2015

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism can affect APOE gene transcription, serum lipid levels and repair of tissue damage, which could place individuals at serious risk of cardiovascular disease or certain infectious diseases. Recently, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was reported to be a simple, inexpensive, accurate and sensitive method for the genotyping or/and scanning of rare mutations. For this reason, an HRM analysis was used in the present study for APOE genotyping in the Southern Chinese Han and African Fang populations. A total of 100 healthy Southern Chinese Han and 175 healthy African Fang individuals attended the study. Polymerase chain reaction-DNA sequencing was used as a reference method for the genotyping of these samples. The six APOE genotypes could all be rapidly and efficiently identified by HRM analysis, and 100% concordance was found between the HRM analysis and the reference method. The allele frequencies of APOE in the Southern Chinese Han population were 7.0, 87.5 and 5.5% for ε2, ε3 and ε4, respectively. In the African Fang population, the allele frequencies of APOE were 24.3, 65.7 and 10.0% for ε2, ε3 and ε4, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found between the allele frequencies between the populations (P<0.05). In conclusion, the present study revealed the molecular characterization of APOE gene polymorphism in the Han population from the Chaozhou region of Southern China and the Fang population from Equatorial Guinea. The findings of the study indicated that HRM analysis could be used as an accurate and sensitive method for the rapid screening and identification of APOE genotypes in prospective clinical and population genetic analyses. © 2014, Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved. Source

Xie D.-D.,Laboratory Medical Center | Li J.,Hubei University of Medicine | Chen J.-T.,Laboratory Medical Center | Eyi U.M.,Central Blood Transfusion Service | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). Methods: A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region. Results: Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39%) had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29%) harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI coinfections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04%) and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island. Conclusions: Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended. Copyright: © 2015 Xie et al. Source

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