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Singh R.,Central Avian Research Institute | Singh R.,Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University | Yadav A.S.,Central Avian Research Institute | Tripathi V.,Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University | Singh R.P.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History
Food Control | Year: 2013

The current study was carried out to detect Salmonella spp. contamination on poultry and poultry environmental samples of layer farms situated in Bareilly and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and serotype distribution of the isolates. A total of 720 samples of egg, feed, water, cloaca, and faeces were collected and screened for the presence of Salmonella. Twenty four (3.3%) of the samples tested were found to be positive for Salmonella. Out of 180 chicken eggs, 120 poultry feed samples, 120 poultry water samples, 120 fecal samples and 180 cloacal swabs, the isolation frequencies of Salmonella spp. were 3.3%, 2.5%, 3.3%, 2.5% and 4.4% respectively. Among the isolates, Salmonella Typhimurium was the predominant serovar. The antibiogram testing revealed differential multi-drug resistance among Salmonella isolates in poultry and poultry environment samples. All the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, oxacillin, penicillin and vancomycin whereas sensitivity was recorded for ampicillin, enrofloxacin and colistin. As a result, the relatively high resistance among the bacteria present in poultry could pose public health and therapeutic problems to consumers as potential vehicles of resistant Salmonella foodborne infections. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Kumar S.,KIIT University | Subhadra S.,Andhra University | Singh B.,University of Oklahoma | Panda B.K.,Central Avian Research Institute
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Hepatitis E infection, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a common cause of acute hepatitis in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene. The virus is classified into four genotypes (1-4) with one serotype. Genotypes 1 and 2 exclusively infect humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 also infect other animals, particularly pigs. In endemic areas, large outbreaks of acute hepatitis caused by viruses of genotype 1 or 2 frequently occur due to fecal-oral transmission, usually through contamination of drinking water. With a high attack rate in young adults (aged 15-45 years), the disease is particularly severe among pregnant women (20-30% mortality). HEV appears to be a zoonotic disease, with transmission from pigs, wild boars, and deer, or foodborne. Chronic infections are rare, except in immunosuppressed persons, such as organ transplant recipients. A subunit vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing the clinical disease, but is not yet commercially available. Our understanding of HEV has undergone major changes in recent years and in this article we review the currently available information with regard to the molecular biology, pathobiology, and epidemiology of HEV infection. We also review the current therapeutic interventions and strategies being used to control HEV infection, with emphasis on possible approaches that could be used to develop an effective vaccine against HEV. © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases.


Juneja V.K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Yadav A.S.,Central Avian Research Institute | Hwang C.-A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Sheen S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012

We investigated the heat resistance of an eight-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars in chicken supplemented with transcinnamaldehyde (0 to 1.0%, wt/wt) and carvacrol (0 to 1.0%, wt/wt). Inoculated meat was packaged in bags that were completely immersed in a circulating water bath and held at 55 to 71°C for predetermined lengths of time. The recovery medium was tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract and 1% sodium pyruvate. D-values in chicken, determined by linear regression, were 17.45, 2.89, 0.75, and 0.29 min at 55, 60, 65, and 71°C, respectively (z = 9.02°C). Using a survival model for nonlinear survival curves, D-values in chicken ranged from 13.52 min (D 1, major population) and 51.99 min (D 2, heat-resistant subpopulation) at 55°C to 0.15 min (D 1) and 1.49 min (D 2) at 71°C. When the Salmonella cocktail was in chicken supplemented with 0.1 to 1.0% transcinnamaldehyde or carvacrol, D-values calculated by both approaches were consistently less at all temperatures. This observation suggests that the addition of natural antimicrobials to chicken renders Salmonella serovars more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. Thermal death times from this study will be beneficial to the food industry in designing hazard analysis and critical control point plans to effectively eliminate Salmonella contamination in chicken products used in this study.


Juneja V.K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Gonzales-Barron U.,Polytechnic Institute of Braganza | Gonzales-Barron U.,University College Dublin | Butler F.,University College Dublin | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (60, 65 and 71.1°C) and four concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% vol/wt) of two natural antimicrobials on the heat resistance of an eight-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars in chicken meat. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature and the two antimicrobials, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde. The 48 variable combinations were replicated to provide a total of 96 survivor curves from the experimental data. Mathematical models were then developed to quantify the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of starved Salmonella cells. The theoretical analysis shows that the addition of plant-derived antimicrobials overcomes the heat resistance of starvation-stressed Salmonella in ground chicken meat. The influence of the antimicrobials allows reduced heat treatments, thus reducing heat-induced damage to the nutritional quality of ground-chicken products. Although the reported omnibus log-linear model with tail and the omnibus sigmoid model could represent the experimental survivor curves, their discrepancy only became apparent in the present study when lethality times (D-values and t7.0) from each of the models were calculated. Given the concave nature of the inactivation curves, the log-linear model with tail greatly underestimates the times needed to obtain 7.0 log lethality. Thus, a polynomial secondary model, based on the sigmoid model, was developed to accurately predict the 7.0-log reduction times. The three-factor predictive model can be used to estimate the processing times and temperatures required to achieve specific log reductions, including the regulatory recommendation of 7.0-log reduction of Salmonella in ground chicken. © 2013.


Khare A.K.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Khare A.K.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Biswas A.K.,Central Avian Research Institute | Biswas A.K.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Sahoo J.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of chitosan, EDTA, eugenol and peppermint essential oil and their effect on color and oxidative stability of chicken noodles stored at 35±2°C. Results indicated that among the four preservatives, eugenol treatment exhibited higher ABTS+ (2-2-azinobis-3ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation activity (89.54%), DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil) (51.30%) and superoxide anion scavenging activity (66.82%). Total polyphenol content was also higher in eugenol treated samples. The samples treated with eugenol and chitosan protect against an increase lightness (L-value) and decrease in redness (a) and yellowness (b) values during storage. However, pH value was highest in noodles with chitosan treatment while TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reacting substances) and FFA (Free fatty acids) contents were lowest in noodles with eugenol irrespective of storage periods. Eugenol treatment also showed positive impact on microbiological quality and sensory attributes. In conclusion, eugenol has more potential as a natural preservative to increase shelf-life of chicken noodles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Singh S.,Central Avian Research Institute | Yadav A.S.,Central Avian Research Institute | Singh S.M.,Rohilkhand University | Bharti P.,Central Avian Research Institute
Food Research International | Year: 2010

An investigation was carried out to study the dynamics of Salmonella occurrence in chicken eggs during production at farm level and subsequently in marketing channels (both whole sale and retail markets) in north India and to select an effective antimicrobial agent for the control of Salmonella in poultry birds. A total of 560 chicken eggs comprising 260 from poultry farms and 300 from marketing channels were collected and screened for the presence of Salmonella during the period of April 2006 to July 2007. Twenty seven (4.82%) of the samples tested were found to be positive for Salmonella. Among the chicken eggs from poultry farms and marketing channels, 10 (3.84%) and 17 (5.5%) eggs were positive for Salmonella, respectively. Among the isolates, S. Typhimurium was the predominant serovar. Antibiogram testing revealed multi-drug resistance among Salmonella isolates from chicken eggs collected from poultry farms and marketing channels in north India. All the isolates were resistant to bacitracin, polymyxin-B and colistin, whereas sensitivity was recorded for ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and enrofloxacin. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Bakyaraj S.,Central Avian Research Institute | Bhanja S.K.,Central Avian Research Institute | Majumdar S.,Central Avian Research Institute | Dash B.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Early post-hatch growth and immunity were assessed through in ovo supplementation of nutrients: amino acids (AA), trace elements (TE), fatty acids and vitamins (FAV) grouped under humoral immunity (HI) or cell-mediated immunity (CMI) on the 18th day of incubation at the broad end of the egg using a 25 mm needle. RESULTS: Hatchability in AA groups was better than TE and FAV groups. CMI groups had better hatchability than HI groups. AA and TE groups had higher chick-to-egg weight ratio (P < 0.01) than the FAV group. At 3 weeks of age, a higher body weight (P < 0.01) was recorded in AA for CMI, TE for HI and FAV for HI groups. FAV-injected chicks had a higher bursa weight at hatch, but TE chicks had higher thymus weight at the 3rd week of age. Humoral immune response was not different in in ovo injected chicks compared to control. CMI was higher (P < 0.01) in AA for CMI, TE for CMI and FAV for CMI or HI nutrient-injected chicks. CONCLUSIONS: In ovo injection of AA for CMI and TE for HI may accelerate growth of broiler chickens. In ovo injection of AA, TE or FAV may modulate CMI in chicks. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.


Silambarasan S.,Central Avian Research Institute | Singh R.,Central Avian Research Institute | Mandal A.B.,Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

A study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE), sodium bentonite (SB) and zeolite (Z), alone or in combinations as aflatoxin adsorbents in the diets of broiler chickens containing 300 ppb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Day-old broiler chicks (384) were divided into 12 treatment groups (T1, control; T2, T1 + 300 ppb AFB1; T3, T2 + 0.5% DE; T4, T2 + 1% DE; T5, T2 + 0.5% SB; T6, T2 + 1% SB; T7, T2 + 0.5% DE +0.5% SB; T 8, T2 + 0.5% Z; T9, T2 + 1% Z; T10, T2 + 0.5% Z + 0.5% DE; T11, T2 + 0.5% Z + 0.5% SB; T12,T2 +[Z+DE+SB (0.33% each)]. Each diet was offered from day-old to 42 days of age to 4 replicated groups of 8 birds each. Feeding diet with 300 ppb of AFB1 in diet caused significant decrease in body weight gain (BWG 1168g) as compared to control (1 429 g). Inclusion of all the binders in aflatoxin contaminated diet, alone or in combinations, improved the overall BWG (1 290 to 1 389 g/bird), however, significantly lower BWG was recorded in DE groups in comparison to other binders during 0-6 weeks growth period. The BWG did not differ between zeolites and sodium bentonite groups. Feed consumption was not affected during the first week of age but reduced thereafter on diet with 300 ppb level of dietary AFB1. Amongst the binder groups, feed consumption was lowest in DE fed groups. Addition of aflatoxin resulted in poor feed conversion, energy and protein efficiency, which partially improved on inclusions of binders at any levels, alone or in combination. Thus, it may be concluded that addition of 300 ppb AFB1 in the diet of broiler chickens impaired the performance of broiler chickens during 0-6 weeks of age. All the 3 binders at 0.5 or 1% level, alone or in combination, were partially efficacious in ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxin. Among the binders tested, diatomaceous earth appeared to be the least efficacious in ameliorating aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.


Biswas A.K.,Central Avian Research Institute | Tandon S.,Central Avian Research Institute | Beura C.K.,Central Avian Research Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples. The concentrations of μ-, m-calpain and calpastatin detected in the extracts of blood, breast and thigh samples were 0.28-0.55, 1.91-2.05 and 1.38-1.52 Unit/g, respectively. For robustness, the analytical method was applied to determine the activity of calpains (μ and m) in eighty postmortem muscle samples. It has been observed that μ-calpain activity in breast and thigh muscles declined very rapidly at 48 h and 24 h, respectively while activity of m-calpain remained stable. Shear force values were also declined with the increase of post-mortem aging showing the presence of ample tenderness of breast and thigh muscles. Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Padhi M.K.,Central Avian Research Institute
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

To evaluate different crosses and purebreds ducks in respect to various economic traits and to estimate different crossbreeding genetic parameters, a 3×3 complete diallel cross involving indigenous duck (DD), Khaki Campbell (KK) and White Pekin (WW) were used to produce three purebreds (DD, KK, WW) three crossbreds (DK, DW, KW) and three reciprocals (KD, WD, WK). A total of 609 ducklings produced were reared on deep litter and the females (316 in number) were evaluated for growing and laying period body weight along with the production performance traits. Different crossbreeding genetic parameters were estimated for different traits. All the traits in respect to body weight gain during growing and laying period and different production traits including laying house mortality rate showed significant (p≤0.05) difference between different genetic groups. In general, crossbreds perform better than the purebreds for most of the traits studied. General combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal effect (RE) were significant (p≤0.01) for body weight and production traits. Egg weight showed significant (p≤0.01) difference in respect to GCA, SCA and RE for all the ages of measurement except RE for 30th week egg weight. Laying period mortality rate was only significant (p≤0.05) for SCA. Most of the crossbreds recorded heterosis rate in desirable direction for majority of the traits. Overall results revealed that the crossbreds perform well in respect to different traits than the purebreds and may be used to take advantage of heterosis. DW performs well in respect to majority of the traits measured and is of importance for commercial exploitation. Further, pure line selection with development of specialised sire and dam line followed by crossing may be of importance to enhance the performances in the crosses. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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