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Kumar S.,KIIT University | Subhadra S.,Andhra University | Singh B.,University of Oklahoma | Panda B.K.,Central Avian Research Institute
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Hepatitis E infection, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a common cause of acute hepatitis in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene. The virus is classified into four genotypes (1-4) with one serotype. Genotypes 1 and 2 exclusively infect humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 also infect other animals, particularly pigs. In endemic areas, large outbreaks of acute hepatitis caused by viruses of genotype 1 or 2 frequently occur due to fecal-oral transmission, usually through contamination of drinking water. With a high attack rate in young adults (aged 15-45 years), the disease is particularly severe among pregnant women (20-30% mortality). HEV appears to be a zoonotic disease, with transmission from pigs, wild boars, and deer, or foodborne. Chronic infections are rare, except in immunosuppressed persons, such as organ transplant recipients. A subunit vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing the clinical disease, but is not yet commercially available. Our understanding of HEV has undergone major changes in recent years and in this article we review the currently available information with regard to the molecular biology, pathobiology, and epidemiology of HEV infection. We also review the current therapeutic interventions and strategies being used to control HEV infection, with emphasis on possible approaches that could be used to develop an effective vaccine against HEV. © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Source

Juneja V.K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Yadav A.S.,Central Avian Research Institute | Hwang C.-A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Sheen S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012

We investigated the heat resistance of an eight-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars in chicken supplemented with transcinnamaldehyde (0 to 1.0%, wt/wt) and carvacrol (0 to 1.0%, wt/wt). Inoculated meat was packaged in bags that were completely immersed in a circulating water bath and held at 55 to 71°C for predetermined lengths of time. The recovery medium was tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract and 1% sodium pyruvate. D-values in chicken, determined by linear regression, were 17.45, 2.89, 0.75, and 0.29 min at 55, 60, 65, and 71°C, respectively (z = 9.02°C). Using a survival model for nonlinear survival curves, D-values in chicken ranged from 13.52 min (D 1, major population) and 51.99 min (D 2, heat-resistant subpopulation) at 55°C to 0.15 min (D 1) and 1.49 min (D 2) at 71°C. When the Salmonella cocktail was in chicken supplemented with 0.1 to 1.0% transcinnamaldehyde or carvacrol, D-values calculated by both approaches were consistently less at all temperatures. This observation suggests that the addition of natural antimicrobials to chicken renders Salmonella serovars more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. Thermal death times from this study will be beneficial to the food industry in designing hazard analysis and critical control point plans to effectively eliminate Salmonella contamination in chicken products used in this study. Source

Juneja V.K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Gonzales-Barron U.,Polytechnic Institute of Braganza | Gonzales-Barron U.,University College Dublin | Butler F.,University College Dublin | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (60, 65 and 71.1°C) and four concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% vol/wt) of two natural antimicrobials on the heat resistance of an eight-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars in chicken meat. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature and the two antimicrobials, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde. The 48 variable combinations were replicated to provide a total of 96 survivor curves from the experimental data. Mathematical models were then developed to quantify the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of starved Salmonella cells. The theoretical analysis shows that the addition of plant-derived antimicrobials overcomes the heat resistance of starvation-stressed Salmonella in ground chicken meat. The influence of the antimicrobials allows reduced heat treatments, thus reducing heat-induced damage to the nutritional quality of ground-chicken products. Although the reported omnibus log-linear model with tail and the omnibus sigmoid model could represent the experimental survivor curves, their discrepancy only became apparent in the present study when lethality times (D-values and t7.0) from each of the models were calculated. Given the concave nature of the inactivation curves, the log-linear model with tail greatly underestimates the times needed to obtain 7.0 log lethality. Thus, a polynomial secondary model, based on the sigmoid model, was developed to accurately predict the 7.0-log reduction times. The three-factor predictive model can be used to estimate the processing times and temperatures required to achieve specific log reductions, including the regulatory recommendation of 7.0-log reduction of Salmonella in ground chicken. © 2013. Source

Khare A.K.,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Khare A.K.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Biswas A.K.,Central Avian Research Institute | Biswas A.K.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Sahoo J.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of chitosan, EDTA, eugenol and peppermint essential oil and their effect on color and oxidative stability of chicken noodles stored at 35±2°C. Results indicated that among the four preservatives, eugenol treatment exhibited higher ABTS+ (2-2-azinobis-3ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation activity (89.54%), DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil) (51.30%) and superoxide anion scavenging activity (66.82%). Total polyphenol content was also higher in eugenol treated samples. The samples treated with eugenol and chitosan protect against an increase lightness (L-value) and decrease in redness (a) and yellowness (b) values during storage. However, pH value was highest in noodles with chitosan treatment while TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reacting substances) and FFA (Free fatty acids) contents were lowest in noodles with eugenol irrespective of storage periods. Eugenol treatment also showed positive impact on microbiological quality and sensory attributes. In conclusion, eugenol has more potential as a natural preservative to increase shelf-life of chicken noodles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Padhi M.K.,Central Avian Research Institute
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

To evaluate different crosses and purebreds ducks in respect to various economic traits and to estimate different crossbreeding genetic parameters, a 3×3 complete diallel cross involving indigenous duck (DD), Khaki Campbell (KK) and White Pekin (WW) were used to produce three purebreds (DD, KK, WW) three crossbreds (DK, DW, KW) and three reciprocals (KD, WD, WK). A total of 609 ducklings produced were reared on deep litter and the females (316 in number) were evaluated for growing and laying period body weight along with the production performance traits. Different crossbreeding genetic parameters were estimated for different traits. All the traits in respect to body weight gain during growing and laying period and different production traits including laying house mortality rate showed significant (p≤0.05) difference between different genetic groups. In general, crossbreds perform better than the purebreds for most of the traits studied. General combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal effect (RE) were significant (p≤0.01) for body weight and production traits. Egg weight showed significant (p≤0.01) difference in respect to GCA, SCA and RE for all the ages of measurement except RE for 30th week egg weight. Laying period mortality rate was only significant (p≤0.05) for SCA. Most of the crossbreds recorded heterosis rate in desirable direction for majority of the traits. Overall results revealed that the crossbreds perform well in respect to different traits than the purebreds and may be used to take advantage of heterosis. DW performs well in respect to majority of the traits measured and is of importance for commercial exploitation. Further, pure line selection with development of specialised sire and dam line followed by crossing may be of importance to enhance the performances in the crosses. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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