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Bourgault M.,McGill University | Bourgault M.,CSIRO | Madramootoo C.A.,McGill University | Webber H.A.,McGill University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2013

With world population expected to reach 9.2 billion people by 2050, improved irrigation methods will be needed to increase the productivity of agricultural land and improve food supply worldwide. The objective of this work was to examine the effect of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and alternate furrow irrigation (AFI) on the yield and yield components of two legume species (common bean and mungbean) produced as a second crop following winter wheat in Uzbekistan, Central Asia. Water relations and crop development were also examined. The research was conducted during two successive growing seasons in the Fergana valley. Production of mungbean using the severe stress RDI treatment in combination with AFI resulted in the highest yields with the lowest quantity of applied water in 2004. In addition, yields of common bean in the moderate stress treatment were not different from the recommended schedule, although irrigation events were decreased from 4 to 2. AFI did not reduce yields, and it did not interact with RDI to reduce yields further. In general, mungbean yields were higher than those of common bean. The combination of AFI and RDI can allow legume production with reduced water inputs. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Ikramova M.,Central Asian Research Institute of Irrigation SANIIRI
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

Natural-climatic conditions of Uzbekistan, the limited area of lands suitable for cropping and limited water resources force to search more effective and useful ways of water-land resources usage. An anthropogenic desertification brings to complication of the problem above. About 15% of a crop is lost because of a unsuccessful ameliorative condition of the lands. This situation is more serious in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya river. Efficiency of the irrigated lands in Karakalpakstan 4.5 times lower than in the country, in the Khorezm area - 1.4 times. The parameters of disease connected to water quality have grown and there is a sanitary-and-epidemiologic condition get worse frequently. Alongside with the general problems, situation can be complicated with water shortage and a drought. Hydrologicalmode of the Amu Darya River is not stability. Extreme situations such as flood (1994, 1995 is observed, 2003-2004) and dry become more frequent (2000, 2001). In the Amu Darya river basin limited water division is carried out to manage of water distribution taking into account water quality. The structure of water consumption in a lower reaches of Amu Darya is various. In the Khorezm area the agriculture consumes 97.5% from the taken water, for municipal services - 1.8, fish economy - 0.7%. We have developed an information-program complex which includes: • Model of water resources management • A database • User interface The model allows calculating various scenarios of the Amu Darya river water resources management considering its quantity and quality in imitation and optimization modes. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

Bourgault M.,McGill University | Madramootoo C.A.,McGill University | Webber H.A.,McGill University | Stulina G.,Central Asian Research Institute of Irrigation SANIIRI | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2010

As water for irrigation purposes becomes increasingly scarce because of climate change and population growth, there is growing interest in regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) as a way to improve efficiency of water usage and farm productivity in arid and semi-arid areas. Salinity is also becoming an important problem in these same regions. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of RDI and salt stress on two legumes crops, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek); previous work showed contrasting responses to RDI by these two crops under field conditions. The seed and biomass yields of both crops were reduced as a result of increasing water deficit stress; however, mungbean was able to maintain the same proportion of its biomass in reproductive structures and maintain its harvest index under stress, whereas common bean's decreased. In addition, photosynthesis in mungbean was higher than in common bean and higher at the same levels of transpiration. Finally, salinity stress did not affect the water potential, harvest index or the specific leaf weight of either crop. There were no interactions between salinity and crops or RDI levels, which suggest that the two crops do not differ in their response to salinity stress, and that RDI levels do not modify this response. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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