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Bindi D.,German Research Center for Geosciences | Bindi D.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Mayfield M.,German Research Center for Geosciences | Parolai S.,German Research Center for Geosciences | And 5 more authors.
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2011

A risk scenario for Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic, is evaluated by considering a magnitude 7.5 earthquake occurring over the Issyk-Ata fault. The intensity values predicted through the application of an attenuation relationship and a recently compiled vulnerability composition model are used as inputs for seismic risk assessment, carried out using the Cedim Risk Estimation Tool (CREST) code. Although the results of this study show a reduction by as much as a factor of two with respect to the results of earlier studies, the risk scenario evaluated in this paper confirms the large number of expected injuries and fatalities in Bishkek, as well as the severe level of building damage. Furthermore, the intensity map has also been evaluated by performing stochastic simulations. The spectral levels of the ground shaking are converted into intensity values by applying a previously derived conversion technique. The local site effects are empirically estimated considering the spectral ratios between the earthquakes recorded by a temporary network deployed in Bishkek and the recordings at two reference sites. Although the intensities computed via stochastic simulations are lower than those estimated with the attenuation relationship, the simulations showed that site effects, which can contribute to intensity increments as large as 2 units in the north part of the town, are playing an important role in altering the risk estimates for different parts of the town. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Petrakov D.A.,Moscow State University | Lavrientiev I.I.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Kovalenko N.V.,Moscow State University | Usubaliev R.A.,Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences
Earth's Cryosphere | Year: 2014

In the paper we present and discuss results of the radio-echo sounding and ice thickness modeling of Sary-Tor Glacier (Ak-Shyirak massif, Inner Tian Shan). Ability for correct assessment of regional glacier volume in Tian Shan is limited due to the small amount of direct ice thickness measurement data. Ca. 17 km of ice thickness measurements tracks were done on 18-20 May, 2013 using monopulse VIRL-6 GPR with central frequency 20 MHz. Maximum measured ice thickness was 159 m, whereas average thickness was 51 m. Detailed ice thickness and bedrock topography maps were compiled for Sary-Tor. Glacier volume was defined as (0,126 ± 0,001) km3. In addition ice volume was calculated using the Glab-Top model calibrated by direct data and volume-area scaling. Both approaches could be used to determine ice volume of Sary-Tor Glacier with high accuracy. The Sary-Tor Glacier area shrinkage rate in 2003-2012 slightly decreased compared to 1977-2003. Source


Bindi D.,Helmholtz Center Potsdam | Boxberger T.,Helmholtz Center Potsdam | Orunbaev S.,Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences | Pilz M.,Helmholtz Center Potsdam | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Geophysics | Year: 2015

In this work, the development of an on-site early warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) is outlined. Several low cost sensors equipped with MEMS accelerometers are installed in eight buildings distributed within the urban area. The different sensing units communicate each other via wireless links and the seismic data are streamed in real-time to the data center using internet. Since each single sensing unit has computing capabilities, software for data processing can be installed to perform decentralized actions. In particular, each sensing unit can perform event detection task and run software for on-site early warning. If a description for the vulnerability of the building is uploaded in the sensing unit, this piece of information can be exploited to introduce the expected probability of damage in the early-warning protocol customized for a specific structure. © 2015 by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. All rights reserved. Source


Hagg W.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Mayer C.,Bavarian Academy of science and Humanities | Lambrecht A.,University of Innsbruck | Kriegel D.,Helmholtz Center Potsdam | Azizov E.,Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2013

A glacier inventory referring to the year 2007 was created for the Big Naryn basin based on satellite imagery. The 507 glaciers had a total area of 471. km2. Compared to the Soviet glacier inventory based on data from the mid 20th century, the total glacier area decreased by 23.4%. The shrinkage varies from 14% to 42% between individual mountain ranges. We discuss the possible causes for this considerable variation by analyzing and interpreting topographic parameters and differences between seven sub-regions. On three glaciers, ice thickness was derived by ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements on the glacier tongues and by surface slope using a simplified ice mechanical approach on the upper parts. We estimate the total ice volume of the basin for both inventories using volume-area scaling. Our results show a current glacier volume of 26.0-33.3. km3. A total of 6.6-8.4. km3 (20%) have been lost since the mid 20th century. The water equivalent of 5.9-7.6. km3 was transformed into excess discharge and contributed to at least 7.3-9.2% of total runoff in the considered period. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009.4.1.3.2 | Award Amount: 4.14M | Year: 2010

European Commission Vice President Gnter Verheugen, responsible for enterprise and industry policy declared European industries need predictability in the flow of raw materials and stable prices to remain competitive. We are committed to improve the conditions of access to raw materials, be it within Europe or by creating a level playing field in accessing such materials from abroad. The global dimension of access to raw materials was on the agenda of the G8 Summit on June 2007. On that occasion a Declaration on Responsibility for raw materials: transparency and sustainable growth was adopted. Several national and international initiatives, both from the private or the institutional sectors, arised to address the sustainable development of the extractive industry and the reduction of its environmental footprint. Meanwhile, the extractive industry is facing increasing environmental and societal pressures, being regulatory or not, during all phases of a project, from exploration to exploitation and closure. The social acceptability of a project is among the major key issues to be dealt with. EO-MINERS scientific and technical objectives are to: - assess policy requirements at macro (public) and micro (mining companies) levels and define environmental, socio-economic, societal and sustainable development criteria and indicators to be possibly dealt using EO - use existing EO knowledge and carry out new developments on demonstration sites to further demonstrate the capabilities of integrated EO-based methods and tools in monitoring, managing and contributing reducing the environmental and societal footprints of the extractive industry during all phases of a mining project, from the exploration to the exploitation and closure stages - contribute making available reliable and objective information about affected ecosystems, populations and societies, to serve as a basis for a sound trialogue between industrialists, governmental organisations and stakeholder

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