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Ameratunga R.,Auckland City Hospital | Woon S.-T.,LabPlus | Neas K.,Central and Southern Regional Genetic Services | Love D.R.,LabPlus
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDs) are a group of diseases associated with a genetic predisposition to recurrent infections, malignancy, autoimmunity and allergy. The molecular basis of many of these disorders has been identified in the last two decades. Most are inherited as single gene defects. Identifying the underlying genetic defect plays a critical role in patient management including diagnosis, family studies, prognostic information, prenatal diagnosis and is useful in defining new diseases. In this review we outline the clinical utility of molecular testing for these disorders using clinical cases referred to Auckland Hospital. It is written from the perspective of a laboratory offering a wide range of tests for a small developed country. © 2010 Ameratunga et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Fischer B.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Dimopoulou A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Egerer J.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Egerer J.,Max Planck Institute fuer Molekulare Genetik | And 24 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) syndromes are phenotypically overlapping, but genetically heterogeneous disorders. Mutations in the ATP6V0A2 gene were found to underlie both, autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2), Debré type, and wrinkly skin syndrome (WSS). The ATP6V0A2 gene encodes the a2 subunit of the V-type H+-ATPase, playing a role in proton translocation, and possibly also in membrane fusion. Here, we describe a highly variable phenotype in 13 patients with ARCL2, including the oldest affected individual described so far, who showed strikingly progressive dysmorphic features and heterotopic calcifications. In these individuals we identified 17 ATP6V0A2 mutations, 14 of which are novel. Furthermore, we demonstrate a localization of ATP6V0A2 at the Golgi-apparatus and a loss of the mutated ATP6V0A2 protein in patients' dermal fibroblasts. Investigation of brefeldin A-induced Golgi collapse in dermal fibroblasts as well as in HeLa cells deficient for ATP6V0A2 revealed a delay, which was absent in cells deficient for the ARCL-associated proteins GORAB or PYCR1. Furthermore, fibroblasts from patients with ATP6V0A2 mutations displayed elevated TGF-β signalling and increased TGF-β1 levels in the supernatant. Our current findings expand the genetic and phenotypic spectrum and suggest that, besides the known glycosylation defect, alterations in trafficking and signalling processes are potential key events in the pathogenesis of ATP6V0A2-related ARCL. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Thevenon J.,University of Burgundy | Monnier N.,Grenoble University Hospital Center | Callier P.,Laboratoire Of Cytogenetique | Dieterich K.,Grenoble University Hospital Center | And 19 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014

Distal limb contractures (DLC) represent a heterogeneous clinical and genetic condition. Overall, 20-25% of the DLC are caused by mutations in genes encoding the muscle contractile apparatus. Large interstitial deletions of the 3p have already been diagnosed by standard chromosomal analysis, but not associated with a specific phenotype. We report on four patients with syndromic DLC presenting with a de novo 3p14.1p13 microdeletion. The clinical features associated multiple contractures, feeding problems, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. Facial dysmorphism was constant with low-set posteriorly rotated ears and blepharophimosis. Review of previously reported cases with a precise mapping of the deletions, documented a 250kb smallest region of overlap (SRO) necessary for DLC. This region contained one gene, EIF4E3, the first three exons of the FOXP1 gene, and an intronic enhancer of FOXP1 named hs1149. Sanger sequencing and locus quantification of hs1149, EIF4E3, and FOXP1 in a cohort of 11 French patients affected by DLC appeared normal. In conclusion, we delineate a new microdeletion syndrome involving the 3p14.1p13 locus and associated with DLC and severe developmental delay. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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