Central Analytical Laboratory

Laboratory, South Africa

Central Analytical Laboratory

Laboratory, South Africa
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Zhang Q.,Hubei Academy of Environmental Science | Liu B.,Central Analytical Laboratory | Liu Y.,Fudan University
Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2014

The effect of ozone dose on algae (Microcystic aeruginosa), algal extracellular organic matters (EOM), humic acids (HA) and four model compounds: bovine serum albumin (BSA), starch, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and fish oil as precursors for disinfection by-products (DBPs) production was investigated. Algae showed the highest DBPs formation (71.8 μg mg-1 total organic carbon (TOC)) than other samples. Only BSA showed lower chloroform yield (5.9 μg mg-1 TOC) than haloacetic acids, HAAs (11.2 μg mg -1 TOC). Algae, EOM, starch, DNA, fish oil and HA all showed higher chloroform yields (46.1, 23.8, 8.9, 37.1, 44.0 and 33.7 μg mg-1 TOC, respectively) than HAAs (25.7, 20.2, 6.3, 10.0, 13.1 and 18.4 μg mg -1 TOC, respectively). Pre-ozonation increased DBPs, especially chloroform, formation from algae and DNA significantly. With the increase in ozone doses, DBPs yields of algae and DNA increased 19.0 and 34.5 μg mg -1 TOC, chloroform yields of algae and DNA increased 15.3 and 30.4 μg mg-1 TOC, respectively. However, pre-ozonation decreased DBPs formation from starch, fish oil and HA, and the corresponding decrease amount was 2.4, 26.9 and 9.5 μg mg-1 TOC, respectively. There are no regular change trends of DBPs formation from EOM and BSA with the increase in ozone doses. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Zhang Q.,Hubei Academy of Environmental Science | Liu B.,Central Analytical Laboratory
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

The variation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) at several stages of drinking water treatment plants was investigated in two drinking water plants. The results clearly indicate that the low molecular weight total organic carbon (TOC) which has been identified as primary precursor for chlorinated DBPs was difficult to remove by coagulation. Plant A which used conventional coagulation/sedimentation could not decrease the species of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) formation potential. Biological activated carbon (BAC) was applied in Plant B which removed the maximum amount of TOC, while more kinds of microbial products were produced in BAC unit which could be the potential precursors of DBPs. Therefore, the species of DBPs formation potential still increased in the treatment processes of Plant B. Because different components of organic precursors produced different DBPs species, the processes of Plant B could decrease TOC efficiently but the species of THMs and HAAs formation potential. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zhang Q.,Hubei Academy of Environmental Science | Liu B.,Central Analytical Laboratory | Liu Y.,Fudan University | Cai X.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology | Year: 2015

The inactivation of virus in raw water was conducted in a continuous flow pilot scale system. Coliphage MS2 was used as model organism for human enteric virus. The effect of disinfection technologies (single or combined process of ozonation and chlorination) and interfering substances (bromide or iodide) on inactivation of virus, and the removal performance of virus in raw water by the pilot scale system (Train A and B) were investigated. The results indicated that bromide or iodide in water was detrimental to ozonation but beneficial to chlorination for virus inactivation. After bromide or iodide was added, the removal of MS2 by ozonation unit was much lower than before (p < 0.01), the removal of MS2 by chlorination unit was significantly higher than before (p < 0.05). Both Train A and B could remove and inactivate MS2 in raw water completely even at high concentration of bromide (675.24 μg/dm3) and iodide (52.33 μg/dm3). The processes of Train A and B can effectively guarantee the virological safety of drinking water. © 2015, Allerton Press, Inc.

Zhang Q.,Hubei Academy of Environmental Science | Liu B.,Central Analytical Laboratory | Liu W.,Hubei Academy of Environmental Science | Zhang B.,Hubei Academy of Environmental Science
Chemistry Bulletin / Huaxue Tongbao | Year: 2014

Physical-chemical remediation technology of contaminated soil has become a hot issue by its characteristic of fast speed and high efficiency. Several physical-chemical remediation technologies such as engineering technique, vitrification, thermal remediation, electrokinetic remediation, photodegradation, chemical washing, chemical immobilization, chemical oxidation and combined remediation and their technical features were analyzed to provide reference for the remediation of contaminated soil in China by suitable technology.

Hauser A.,Central Analytical Laboratory | Ali F.,Central Analytical Laboratory | Al-Dosari B.,Central Analytical Laboratory | Al-Sammar H.,Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning | Year: 2013

Public awareness of environmental concerns are on the increase, and thus, safety standards have become more stringent, and far more analyses are required. Due to extensive oil exploitation, refi ning and transportation, oil pollution has become a major source of water and soil contamination. Although a number of standard procedures exist to quantify total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in soil, they all require time- and labor-intensive sample preparation, and most use per-halogenated solvents. Therefore, a feasibility study was undertaken to test the possibility of using near-infrared refl ectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for direct determination of oil contamination in soil. Based on a set of no. 43 samples spiked with known and independently confi rmed TPH contamination of 0.05 to 2.19 wt% (using liquid-solid extraction and US-EPA method 418.1) a chemometric model was developed. The regression model fulfi lled the following criteria for the reference data: validation coeffi cient r2≥0.929 and root-mean-square error of validation ≤0.177. A set of no. 26 fi eld samples contaminated with weathered crude oil (?0.1-5%) were analyzed by NIRS and conventional methods (i.e., extraction and US-EPA method 418.1). A correlation factor of r2≥0.928 with a standard deviation of the absolute differences between true and predicted values of ≤0.251 was obtained. © 2013 WIT Press.

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