Central American Business University

Alajuela, Costa Rica
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Leyton-Pavez C.E.,Central American Business University | Huerta-Riveros P.C.,Central American Business University | Paul-Espinoza I.R.,Servicio de Salud Nuble
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2015

Objective. To evaluate the installation of strategies in the higher complexity hospitals (HMC, in Spanish) of public health in Chile starting from the results of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), during the years 2011-2012. Materials and methods. The implementation of the BSC is described, the strategies and indicators identified, and the results of the 57 HMC compared and analyzed. Results. Starting from the comparison of the results it is discovered that the BSC allows to evaluate the installation of the strategies. Conclusion. Differences are identified in the installation of the strategies by geographical area, with North presenting a higher score (20.21), followed by Center (10.41) and South (19.50), which can be explained by the size and complexity of this establishments, variables that should be incorporated in the evaluation of the results of the BSC.

PubMed | España University, University of Granada and Central American Business University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gaceta sanitaria | Year: 2016

There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature.

Alfaro Navarro J.-L.,Central American Business University | Andres Martinez M.-E.,Central American Business University | Trinquecoste J.-F.,University Bordeaux 4
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2015

The effect of external factors such as the economic situation on airline ticket price behaviour has not been examined in the specialised literature. In this paper, we analyse the effect of the economic crisis on the behaviour of the prices offered via several types of intermediaries over time. We chose to examine the Madrid-New York route because of its high demand which provides us with a sufficient number of flights and it is used for both business and leisure trips. We used round-trip fares posted on-line, from two months prior to departure, in order to replicate real travellers' behaviour when making reservations. We chose flights in 2009 and 2013 departing on 18th June and returning eight days later on 26th June, in order to avoid peak holiday times. The results show that the economic crisis has affected price behaviour both in terms of price level and dispersion, with a clear increase in price level and decrease in price dispersion. Moreover, the economic crisis has reduced the usual marked increase in average price that takes place as the flight departure date approaches. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Ramirez P.E.,Central American Business University | Mariano A.M.,Centro Universitario Of Brasilia
Informacion Tecnologica | Year: 2014

This study analyzes the scientific production in the field of business studies in Chile and Brazil. The methodology is based on scientometric tools, using as sources 7955 papers published in Scopus indexed journals between 2004 and 2013. In summary, the results indicate that although in both countries the scientific production has significantly increased, a reduction of the impact of these articles is detected. In addition, there are differences between Chile and Brazil associated to cooperation with other countries, the variety of journals where studies are published, and the structure of the ranking of the institutions that publish. The main conclusions indicate that research in this area is carried out in universities, cooperation between countries is significant in this scientific production, and dissemination is carried out mainly through regional journals. © 2014, Centro de Informacion Tecnologica. All rights reserved.

Martinez M.E.A.,Central American Business University | Borja M.-A.G.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Jimenez J.-A.M.,University of Castilla - La Mancha
Journal of Transport Economics and Policy | Year: 2014

The Internet as a virtual sales channel has affected price behaviour. One of the most widespread beliefs is that prices are lower on the Internet. This paper analyses the effect of the dynamic pricing strategies most commonly used on the Internet on price behaviour. More specifically, we consider the prices level and price dispersion between different intermediaries, namely those that only operate on the Internet, those that operate simultaneously both online and in travel agencies, and the airlines themselves, using the prices posted on their web pages. Results show that 'pure' Internet intermediaries offer lower prices, although variability is similar.

Saez-Martinez F.J.,Central American Business University | Diaz-Garcia C.,Central American Business University | Gonzalez-Moreno A.,Central American Business University
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

There is increasing social and political awareness of the importance of developing environmental responsibility at a corporate level. When focusing on issues of responsibility, large companies are frequently perceived to be more responsible for driving climate change and resource depletion. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) contribute significantly to the use of resources such as material and energy and produce approximately 64% of the pollution in Europe. Drawing on evidence from "The Eurobarometer 381 Survey on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets", we analyze the environmental responsibility of European SMEs, studying their compliance with environmental legislation and how several factors drive environmental orientation among SMEs. Our sample consists of 3647 SMEs operating in 38 countries. Only around a fifth of the firms go beyond environmental regulations, showing the highest levels of environmental responsibility. We conduct OLS regressions to analyze the factors that affect a positive environmental attitude among European SMEs (internal drivers being more significant than external ones) and then, to observe the positive effect of environmental responsibility and firm's experience in offering green services/products on performance, although a conjoint effect was not found. Implications for practitioners, academics, and policy-makers are outlined. © 2016 by the authors.

Macias A.,España University | Matilla-Garcia M.,Central American Business University
Energy Policy | Year: 2015

This article presents a dynamic growth model with energy as an input in the production function. The available stock of energy resources is ordered by a quality parameter based on energy accounting: the "Energy Return on Energy Invested" (EROI). In our knowledge this is the first paper where EROI fits in a neoclassical growth model (with individual utility maximization and market equilibrium), establishing the economic use of "net energy analysis" on a firmer theoretical ground. All necessary concepts to link neoclassical economics and EROI are discussed before their use in the model, and a comparative static analysis of the steady states of a simplified version of the model is presented. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Herrero Olarte S.,Central American Business University
Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies | Year: 2016

Latin America has tried to follow a process of regionalization throughout its history. In the XXI century, fundamental advances were given for a model of integration, culminating in the creation of the UNASUR. Recent results in terms of achievements result of the integration process are not being forceful. Emerges strongly the idea of a "new integration", a "new regionalism" or a "post hegemonic regionalism", they consider that in practice, and although the objectives are other, Latin American regionalization tends to models of cooperation and no integration. Is it possible to think back to a Latin American regionalization passing through a model of integration? The comparative analysis of the process of the European Union quintessential model of economic integration, indicates that it would be necessary to carry out a program to achieve improvements for all countries, and that can only be developed jointly. To be efficient and effective, this program should follow a model of planning, control and management recognized and help reduce the gap in the region improving the condition of all. This common element in successful integration processes would think of a model of regionalization to reverse the trend toward cooperation.

As a consequence of the economic and financial crisis during 2008 and 2014, this paper shows how the Spanish industrial sectors had developed some resilient profiles to tackle the former impact of crisis and react through adaptive strategies. The gain of experience in the period reveals some learning to approach industrial and enterprise policies. The qualification and numbers of human capital, together some efforts to support equipment and marketing operative capacities of firms, are bastions to build Resilience in industrial sectors, as demonstrate an empirical multivariable regression model tested in this article. The measure of Resilience deserves three main approaches into scholar literature. The first, Preventive, reflects how vulnerable is the economic or industrial system, to detail which conditions and intensity of them are possible without any permanent deterioration. Second, Positive, allows a better understanding of behavior of system into a risky or handicapped situations, before it reaches limits of collapse. Finally, a third approach focus on capacities for assessment and evaluation of systems and benchmark, to identify knowledge and learning elements under schemes of Better Practices and Success Cases. Under a model of lineal multivariable regression had been calculated 12 functions of Resilience (Dependent variable) for other 12 industrial sectors, based on aggregations and data (2008-2014) of National Statistics Office (INE). The robustness of model had been tested at 1% of confidence level, without significant lineal dependence between independent (regressor) variables (drivers of Resilience), measured through Durbin-Watson's Coefficient values. According results, a 42% of sectors had a Resilience level upper average (Mean) combined with a low volatility (Standard Deviation). In this group were Chemical & Pharmaceuticals, Food & Drinks, Rubber & Plastics, Motor and Diverse Manufacturing, sectors. The main drivers of this resilient behavior were a stable level of R&D investment and Purchases into EU. A 16% of sectors (Extractive Industries and Metals) also shown a resilient profile but volatile (SD upper average), based on Human Capital, a stable effort in R&D investment and Sales into EU. Finally, other 42% of sectors (Textile, Machinery, Wood, Electric & Electronics and No metals industries) were less resilient, based on Human Capital and their capacity to sell into EU. The results of this work continue a promissory field of research on how to build Resilience, how to increase the role of drivers that provide Resilience into economic and industrial systems and a better understanding on how manage it, nevertheless un-desired impacts. The measure of risks and how vulnerability of systems can be afford, based on their own capacities to induce first resilience and recovery after, should be completed with a deeper search of mechanisms to operate into the black box of systems and which tools would be used by industrial and enterprise policies, to sure a faster transit from troubled situations into a recovery and new friendly scenarios for new jobs, confidence and inclusive growth. © 2015 Francisco Javier García Marco y los autores.

PubMed | Central American Business University
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in psychology | Year: 2016

Among the numerous internal and external forces that compete for consumers attention in the context in which they buy their food, this paper will seek to provide a review of the most important external influences, such as the variables related to food itself. To this end, in addition to the food attributes traditionally identified in fields such as consumer behavior, it will give special consideration to the classification of food values. Although the influence of these variables on consumer decisions depends on the individual, analyzing them will undoubtedly increase understanding of consumers decisions. Additionally, identifying and describing these variables will enable subsequent research on how they influence both consumer behavior and other key outcomes for producers, manufacturers, and retailers in the food industry, such as satisfaction, trust, and loyalty.

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