Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR

Port Blair, India

Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR

Port Blair, India

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De A.K.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | De A.K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Jeyakumar S.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | Kundu M.S.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

The Nicobari pig, locally known as Ha-un, is an indigenous pig germplasm located only in the Nicobar group of islands, India. The present study documents the Nicobari pig-rearing practices of the tribal farmers and genetically characterizes them using 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years (2010-2012) in Car Nicobar, India. A total of 225 farmers were surveyed (15 farmers per village of 15 villages). Information on herd statistics, husbandry practices, and constraints faced by the farmers in pig production were collected. The pigs were reared in a free-range system. Mean pig herd size per house hold was 8.9, and main feed for pigs was coconut and some indigenous feed materials such as pandanus, bread fruit, and Nicobari alu. The main constraints faced by the farmers were lack of feed after the tsunami, different disease conditions, piglet mortality, and predator attack. The Nicobari pigs were genotyped by 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The mean observed number of alleles for all 23 loci in Nicobari pigs was 6.96 ± 0.31. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.66 ± 0.02 and 0.75 ± 0.01, respectively. It was found that the genetic diversity of this pig breed was very high compared to Large White Yorkshire and other European pig breeds. This genetic characterization of the pig breed will be helpful in their conservation effort. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Goutham-Bharathi M.P.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | Roy S.D.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | Krishnan P.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | Kaliyamoorthy M.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | Immanuel T.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR
Botanica Marina | Year: 2014

Despite extensive studies on mangrove ecosystems of Andaman and Nicobar Islands since the 1870s, knowledge of exact species composition is far from complete, and there is a lack of comprehensive locality data. The present study was designed to review the existing literature and to provide an updated checklist of the true mangrove species of the Islands. Preliminary surveys were carried out in seven regions (four from the Andaman group and three from the Nicobar group), and the specific survey sites for detailed study (n=51) were selected based on representativeness, importance, and accessibility. During 2009-2013, all the selected sites were visited, and mangrove species occurrence was recorded. At present, 25 true mangrove species distributed among 10 families and 14 genera were identified vis-à-vis 17 to 36 species reported in earlier studies. The discernible changes in species numbers from earlier studies could mainly be attributed to our exclusion of associated littoral vegetation and of species unlikely to be present among the true mangroves of the Islands. Given their limited geographical area, the low similarity index values between the Andaman and Nicobar Island groups (≤0.4) indicate a need for periodical surveys, as mangrove biodiversity is usually homogenous in regions where there are no impassable dispersal barriers. Further, regular updating of information on the extent and status of mangroves in the Islands is imperative not only to improve our understanding of phytogeography but also for better management and conservation. © 2014 by De Gruyter.

Bhagat S.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | Bambawale O.M.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | Tripathi A.K.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | Ahmad I.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | Srivastava R.C.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2013

Twelve isolates of Trichoderma from Andaman and Nicobar Islands have been evaluated for their biocontrol potential under in vitro and field conditions during 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causing wilt of tomato. The isolates Th-CARI-50, Tv-CARI-73, Tv-CARI-85 and Th-CARI-61 were most efficient in the hyperparasitic action on the test pathogen in dual culture test. The biopriming of seeds with Trichoderma isolates and bacterial antagonist significantly improved the germination behaviour of tomato seeds as compared to control. Mycelial form of inocula was proved better than conidial inocula of Trichoderma in inducing germination (%) of tomato seeds. The isolates Th-CARI-61 was proved most effective in inducing per cent germination (90% - mycelial inoculums; 88% - conidial inocula), seedling vigour (945 - MI; 889 - CI), seedling biomass (395.5 mg - MI; 355.4 mg - CI) of tomato seedlings followed by Tv-CARI-85, Th-CARI-50, Tv- CARI-73, P. fluorescens, Tv-CARI-110, Th-CARI-72, whereas Th-CARI-130 was noted with least effective. The seed and soil application of Trichoderma spp. was most effective in reduction of disease incidence of fusarial wilt of tomato under both greenhouse and field conditions than that of either seed or soil application alone. Th-CARI- 50 was most effective in inducing germination (92%), lowest disease (16.4%) and highest reduction of disease incidence (80%) followed by Th-CARI-61, Tv-CARI-85, Tv-CARI-73, Th-CARI-130 and the isolate Tv-CARI-100 was least effective (54.9% RDI). T6 treatment (Th-CARI-50) was most effective in improving field emergence (90.2%) of tomato seedlings, reduction in fusarial wilt disease incidence (78.8%) and corresponding yield increase (138%) of tomato under field condition followed by T12 (Tv-CARI-73), T15 (Tv-CARI-85) and T3 (Th-CARI-61).

Amaresan N.,Bharathidasan University | Amaresan N.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | Jayakumar V.,Sugarcane Breeding Institute | Kumar K.,Central Agricultural Research Institute ICAR | Thajuddin N.,Bharathidasan University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2012

A total of 82 endophytic bacteria of tomato and chilli was isolated from different locations of tropical Islands of Andaman and Nicobar, India. Based on in vitro screening, 16 bacterial isolates that effectively inhibited Ralstonia solanacearum (a bacterial wilt pathogen) were characterised for their diversity and identified through Microbial Identification System (Biolog). Diversity analysed through BOX-PCR showed low similarity index among the antagonistic bacteria. Based on the in vitro antagonistic activities, the selected isolates were further characterised for siderophore, indole acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation and other extracellular enzymes; it is found that most of the isolates were positive for these properties. The production of these metabolites may be responsible for the inhibition of the pathogen R. solanacearum. The isolates BECS3, BECS6 and BECS7 showed multiple attributes and demonstrated plant growth promotion properties through tomato- and chilli-based bioassay under greenhouse conditions. These bacterial inoculations were found to result in significant increase in root, shoot and biomass of both tomato and chilli. Hence, these isolates can be further formulated and used for field application. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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