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Sundaray J.K.,Central Institute of Brackish water Aquaculture | Panigrahi A.,Central Institute of Brackish water Aquaculture | Chand S.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2011

Traditional Indigenous knowledge has over the years played a significant role in solving several major social-ecological problems including those related to climate change and variability. People living close to nature often observe the circumstances around them and are the often the first to identify and adapt to any changes. The appearance of certain birds, mating of certain animals and flowering of certain plants are all seen as important signals of change with respect to timing and seasonality of natural phenomena that are well understood in traditional knowledge systems. Indigenous and local peoples have relied on biodiversity as a buffer against environmental variation, change and catastrophe. In the face of plague, if one crop fails, another will survive. In coping with risks associated with excessive rainfall, drought or crop failure, some traditional people grow a wide diversity of crop species and varieties with differential susceptibility to drought and floods and supplement their crops by hunting, fishing and collecting wild food plants. The diversity of crops and food resources is often matched by a similar diversity in the locating of fields - a safety measure to increase the likelihood that in the face of extreme weather at least some of the fields will be able to produce harvestable crops. Indigenous Technical Knowledge has three main aspects - materials, operations or practices, and institutional systems responsible for the implementation of the knowledge. The materials which are connected with the Indigenous Knowledge are the traditional seeds, medicines and pesticides collected from the plants and animals, the tools used in livelihood such as gears and crafts in fishing. Thus traditional indigenous communities will undoubtedly need additional support to coup up with the natural disastrous, their expertise will offer a great help for the effective management of natural disasters in future.


Sethi S.N.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Sethi S.N.,Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI | Ram N.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Ram N.,Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences | Year: 2014

Reproductive biology of the Monkey river prawn (Macrobrachium lar) was studied in the Rangat river, Andaman Islands, during 2007 to 2009, with the aim of determining the male: female ratio, maturity cycle, spawning seasons and the fecundity in those ecosystems. During 18 months period, 2078 individuals were collected, with a male: female ratio (M/F) of 1: 2.84. Total number of individuals caught per month ranged 65-172. Males were generally larger than females. Percentage occurrence of reproducing and non-reproducing females, ovigerous females, seasonal occurrence of maturity stages, and maturity indices (GSI and HSI) exhibited that M. lar breeds twice in a year with two breeding peaks (June and November) every year. Highest reproduction indices (GSI) in female were observed in November (4.0 ± 0.07), December (3.88 ± 0.28), May (3.63 ± 0.08), and June (3.88 ± 0.16). In both the sexes, HSI showed inversely proportional relationships with GSI. With respect to average fecundity (F) by length classes, the lowest and highest number of eggs observed was 3090 and 8177, respectively. As for fecundity by weight classes, the lowest number of eggs observed was 4069 and the highest, 8543. Overall mean fecundity irrespective of the length and weight classes was 5402 (± 772.35) eggs per female. Diameter of non-eyed and eyed eggs ranged between 0.32 mm to 0.50 mm and 0.52 mm to 0.68 mm respectively. © 2014, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


Singh D.R.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Singh S.,Horticulture Biotechnology and Biochemistry Laboratory
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

The study estimated bioactive compounds in various parts of Morinda citrifolia L. with special reference on fruits, leaves and seeds. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed in various parts for polyphenol, flavonoids, tannins, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, nitrate, oxalate and phytate contents. Determination of DPPH antioxidant activity of different parts revealed that aqueous extract scavenged significantly (p < 0.05) more DPPH free radicals than methanol and acetone extracts. Val-Tyr-Val and Meth-enkephalin polypeptides were high in leaves while Ly-Tyr and Leu-enkephalin in fruits. Fatty acid profiles of Morinda seeds revealed them as rich source of linolenic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and lauric acid. Strong correlations were observed between antioxidant activity and carotenoids (R 2 = 0.774, p = 0.021). Information on bioactives and high free radical scavenging activity of M. citrifolia parts supports their various health claims. © 2013 The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Ravikumar T.,Krishi Vigyan Kendra CARI | Ram N.,Krishi Vigyan Kendra CARI | Krishnan P.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Kiruba Sankar R.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Marine and Island Cultures | Year: 2016

Nicobarese are one of the six aboriginal tribes inhabiting Andaman and Nicobar Islands. They account for over 95% of the total tribal population in the islands and majority of them inhabit at Car Nicobar, which is the capital of Nicobar district and popularly called as Coconut Island. The Nicobari tribes are hunters and gatherers who use their indigenous knowledge for exploitation of marine fishery resources using locally available materials. The common fishing methods in vogue are tamatu (trap), thanam kak (spear with rope) chok/linreny kak (spear with rubber), kinyav (icthyotoxic seed), thakua kak (line), kel thakua kak (hand line), tamarotha thakua kak (long line), Hanak Inhal Kak (shore seine), Inruon thakua kak (troll line) and Inhal (gill net). The Nicobari tribes have inherited the skill for designing and operating these gears from their forefathers. This paper summarises the traditional knowledge existing and commonly practiced among the Nicobari tribes for exploitation of marine fish at Car Nicobar. © 2016 Institution for Marine and Island Cultures, Mokpo National University


Suman T.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Kaleeswaran B.,Tamil University | Immanuel T.,Andaman and Nicobar Regional Center | Dam Roy S.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Krishnan P.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2013

The sponge Pseudoceratina purpurea associated bacteria from Pongibalu region of Andaman islands, India and isolate the methanolic extract of P. purpurea for identifying the antibacterial effect against certain pathogenic bacteria. Standard characterization and biochemical methods were employed for identifying the sponge associated bacteria. Antibacterial assay and micro broth dilution test for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were subjected to evaluate the efficacy of P. purpurea extract against several gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Associated bacteria of P. purpurea, 75% were gram negative bacteria except Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus vulgaris were not susceptible to the sponge extract in well diffusion method. Minimum concentration effect was found in Bacillus thermophilus and Klebsiella pneumoniae against the P. purpurea extract. Overall study apparently showed that the organic extracts of this sponge might be a promising source of secondary metabolites and ascription of toxic metabolites from associated bacteria to find new and useful medicines to treat human and veterinary infections. © RJPT.


Zamir Ahmed S.K.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Ravikumar T.,Krishi Vigyan Kendra CARI | Krishnan P.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Jeyakumar S.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2013

The Nicobari tribes are the predominant tribes in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, whose livelihood options are based on plantation crops and fishing. The study was conducted to review the traditional fishing practices of the Nicobari tribes in Car Nicobar, the capital of Nicobar District and to document their Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) with respect to the fishing crafts and gears. Data were collected through different participatory research tools like key informant survey, group discussion, semi-structured interview schedule, personal observation and also from secondary sources. The investigation showed that Hodi, an outrigger dugout canoe is the traditional fishing craft commonly used by the Nicobarese and the traditional fishing gears used by them include spears, hook and line, trolling line and bow and arrow. It was observed that these tribes also use a few modern fishing gears. The study elucidates the design and operation of the traditional fishing crafts and gears used by Nicobarese and also the traditional practice of stupefying the fishes with an indigenous plant extract.


Ravikumar T.,Krishi Vigyan Kendra CARI | Krishnan P.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Ram N.,Krishi Vigyan Kendra CARI | Kiruba Sankar R.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2015

The Nicobari tribe is one among the six native tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI), who lives in Nicobar group of Islands. This tribe follows traditional fishing methods for the exploitation of marine fishery resources from time immemorial. The traditional crafts employed for exploitation of fish in Car Nicobar, the capital of Nicobar district where a significant proportion of this tribe inhabit, is commonly called as Hodi and “ap” in Nicobari language. Hodi is constructed either using trees locally available in the island or from nearby islands. The technical skill for the construction of Hodi is based on the traditional indigenous knowledge acquired by the Nicobarese from their forefathers. It takes few weeks to few months for the construction of a Hodi. Selection of tree for the construction requires specific experience and few selective elderly persons among Nicobari tribe is considered to be the experts for the construction of Hodi. During earlier days axe and sword sickle (Fel) have been used as construction tools. However, presently modern electrical and mechanical instruments are also used for the construction of this craft. This craft is used for many fishing practices such as spearing, harpooning, light fishing, hand lining, cast netting, shore seining and gill netting to catch seer fishes, carangids, sardines, parrot fishes, tuna, sail fish, barracuda, mullet, octopuses, crabs and turtles. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


PubMed | Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of food sciences and nutrition | Year: 2012

The present study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in 10 underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands (India) namely Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera andamanica L., Morinda citrifolia L., Syzygium aqueum (Burm.f) Alst., Annona squamosa L., Averrhoa carambola L., Averrhoa bilimbi L., Dillenia indica L., Annona muricata L. and Ficus racemosa L. The antioxidant activity varied from 74.27% to 98.77%, and the methanol extract of M. glabra showed the highest antioxidant activity (98.77%; inhibitory concentration, IC(50) = 262.46 g/ml). Methanol was found to be a better solvent than acetone and aqueous for estimating the antioxidant activity. M. glabra was found to be rich in phytochemicals viz. polyphenol (355.74 mg/100 g), anthocyanin (91.31 mg/100 g), carotenoids (109.16 mg/100 g), tannin (24.39 mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (394.23 mg/100 g). Carbohydrate content was estimated to be highest in M. glabra (548 mg/100 g). Phenols, tannins, anthocyanins and carotenoids contents showed positive correlation (r = 0.846, r = 0.864, r = 0.915 and r = 0.806, respectively) with antioxidant activity. The information generated in present study will be useful for bioprospecting of underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands.


Singh D.R.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Singh S.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Salim K.M.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI | Srivastava R.C.,Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2012

The present study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in 10 underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands (India) namely Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera andamanica L., Morinda citrifolia L., Syzygium aqueum (Burm.f) Alst., Annona squamosa L., Averrhoa carambola L., Averrhoa bilimbi L., Dillenia indica L., Annona muricata L. and Ficus racemosa L. The antioxidant activity varied from 74.27% to 98.77%, and the methanol extract of M. glabra showed the highest antioxidant activity (98.77%; inhibitory concentration, IC50 262.46 μg/ml). Methanol was found to be a better solvent than acetone and aqueous for estimating the antioxidant activity. M. glabra was found to be rich in phytochemicals viz. polyphenol (355.74 mg/100 g), anthocyanin (91.31 mg/100 g), carotenoids (109.16 mg/100 g), tannin (24.39 mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (394.23 mg/100 g). Carbohydrate content was estimated to be highest in M. glabra (548 mg/100 g). Phenols, tannins, anthocyanins and carotenoids contents showed positive correlation (r2 0.846, r2 0.864, r2 0.915 and r2 0.806, respectively) with antioxidant activity. The information generated in present study will be useful for bioprospecting of underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

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