Jeyakumar S.,Central Agricultural Research Institute andaman and Nicobar Islands |
De A.K.,Central Agricultural Research Institute andaman and Nicobar Islands |
Kundu A.,Central Agricultural Research Institute andaman and Nicobar Islands |
Roy K.,Central Agricultural Research Institute andaman and Nicobar Islands |
And 5 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2013
Assessing the health of the testes in domestic animals is an important aspect of the breeding soundness examination and selection. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple method for scanning and to establish ultrasonographically the gross anatomic structures of the goat testes. Six adult male goats were examined to study the sonographic appearance of normal testes and epididymides using a water bath based ultrasound scanning technique. The ultrasonographic examinations were done using a 5-9. MHz/60. mm (7.5. MHz) linear-array transducer and a B-mode scanner. The ultrasonographic examination was performed in goats after standardizing the procedure on six testes collected from slaughter house. Results showed that in live goats when the probe was placed directly over the scrotum it gave distorted and unclear image. In water bath method the entire scrotum was dipped into a container filled with water and linear probe was used to observe the sonographic features of the testis. Each testis was viewed vertically, resulting in longitudinal image which was frozen, measured and printed through a thermal printer. The results of the ultrasonogram revealed that the testicular parenchyma was homogenous and moderately echogenic throughout. The diameter (mean±se) of the right and left testes was 4.47±0.14 and 4.42±0.07. cm respectively and no significant difference was observed between the testes. The mediastinum testis was a 1.50±0.22. cm wide linear structure of greater echogenicity than the testicular parenchyma when viewed in the transverse plane and nearly circular echogenic "spot" in the midline of the testis when viewed horizontally. The head and tail of the epididymides were easily identified on all the testes, but the epididymal body and ductus deferens were difficult to identify consistently. The tail of the epididymis was easily identified on the distal end of the testis with sonolucent tubules and appeared sonographically as a 'peaked cap' upon the testicular parenchyma. The diameter (mean±se) of the tail of right and left epididymis was 2.11±0.18 and 1.92±0.06. cm and no significant difference was observed between epididymides. The vascular pampiniform plexus (1.42±0.18. cm) was easily identified on the proximal end of the testes. The tunics of the testes appeared as a bright echogenic line. Inter-testicular septum appeared between testes as a hyperechoic line. It is concluded that ultrasonography permits a noninvasive evaluation of the internal structure of the scrotum and testes and water bath based sonographic examination may prove to be a valuable simple diagnostic methodology for evaluating physiopathologic conditions of goat testes and can be employed as a routine investigative method during breeding soundness and clinical examination. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source