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Schweitzer N.,Central Agricultural Office Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate | Damjanova I.,National Center for Epidemiology | Kaszanyitzky E.,Central Agricultural Office Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate | Ursu K.,Central Agricultural Office Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate | And 4 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2011

During 2008 and 2009, within the framework of the Hungarian monitoring program of antibiotic resistance of zoonotic agents from food-producing animals, a significant number (43 strains) of Campylobacter lanienae were detected for the first time in Hungary. The isolates were genotyped using partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using three different restriction enzymes. The antimicrobial resistance of the isolates was determined by microtiter broth dilution. C. lanienae isolation was successful only from swine but not from other animal species. According to phylogenetic analysis, clustering of the isolates shows the same extensive genetic diversity as other Campylobacter species. Sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene showed that additional variations exist in variable regions Vc2 and Vc6. SmaI restriction enzyme proved to be the most efficient for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of C. lanienae. A significant tetracycline resistance (60.9%) and the presence of erythromycin-, enrofloxacin-, and multiresistant C. lanienae strains were found. Although the pathogenic potential of C. lanienae in humans is currently unknown, this study demonstrates that C. lanieanae is common in pigs in the country, provides further details on the genotypic and phenotypic properties of C. lanienae, and offers a genotyping method for use in source tracing. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Schweitzer N.,Central Agricultural Office Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate | Dan A.,Central Agricultural Office Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate | Kaszanyitzky E.,Central Agricultural Office Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate | Samu P.,Central Agricultural Office Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

Campylobacter spp. are the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in Hungary, and the aim of this study was to identify the distribution, genotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter species in the most important food-producing animals at the time of slaughter during 2008 and 2009. Of 1,110 samples, 266 were identified as Campylobacter coli (23.9%) and 143 as C. jejuni (12.9%) by real-time PCR. Resistance to enrofloxacin-ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was significant, especially in C. jejuni (73.3%) and C. coli (77.2%) from broilers. Higher erythromycin (P = 0.043) and tetracycline (P = 1.865e214) resistance rates were found among C. coli isolates (9.7 and 74.1%, respectively) than among C. jejuni isolates (3.1 and 36.6%, respectively). A total of 47 fla short variable region sequences were identified among 73 selected C. coli and C. jejuni isolates, with 35 fla types detected only once. At the nucleotide level, fla types A66 and A21 were the most common. Using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method, 66% of strains exhibited unique profiles after SmaI digestion. Forty-two isolates assigned to 18 SmaI clusters were further typed by KpnI, and of these, 24 were assigned to 10 KpnI clusters. For isolates in five KpnI clusters, epidemiological links were observed. Stable C. jejuni and C. coli clones were detected, indicating that further studies involving broiler and human isolates need to be conducted to elucidate the importance of these stable clones in human infections. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection. Source

Szabo J.,Szent Istvan University | Vucskits A.,Szent Istvan University | Andrasofszky E.,Szent Istvan University | Berta E.,Szent Istvan University | And 4 more authors.
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to assess the age-related effects of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on the performance, immune response (from day 0 to 42) and macromineral content of femur ash of broilers. The DEB values of the purchased commercial broiler diets were modified with the addition of NH 4Cl or NaHCO 3 to formulate the diets (DEB 325, 250, 175, 100, 25 and -50 mmol/kg) for this investigation. A total of 396 chickens were divided into 6 treatment groups and fed with the experimental diets for 6 weeks. During the first two weeks of life, DEB did not influence feed intake and body weight gain; however, by the 21st day of age DEB 175 and between 22 and 42 days of age DEB 250 mmol/kg gave significantly better results than the control. DEB did not affect the macromineral concentrations of bone ash. The immune response of broilers on low DEB (< 175 mmol/kg) was faster and more intensive than that of chickens on diets with medium or high DEB (> 175 mmol/kg). It can be concluded that the optimal DEB value required for the best body weight gain is significantly influenced by the age of broilers. Our results call attention to the discrepancy between the decreasing DEB level of commercial broiler diets and the age-related increase of 'electrolyte requirements' of broilers. It is also interesting that DEB may influence not only the performance but also the immune response of broilers. Source

Rigo K.,Szent Istvan University | Gyuranecz M.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Toth A.G.,Central Agricultural Office Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate | Foldvari G.,Szent Istvan University
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in small mammals and ticks using polymerase chain reaction and to gain information about the prevalence and possible coexistence of these pathogens at a selected site in Hungary. Two hundred seventy-seven small mammals were trapped in South-Eastern Hungary during 2009. Tissue samples and a total of 831 ectoparasites (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes acuminatus, Haemaphysalis concinna, Ctenophtalmus assimilis, and Nosopsyllus fasciatus) were collected from small mammals. One thousand one hundred and six I. ricinus and 476 H. concinna were collected from the vegetation during the investigation. Neither A. phagocytophilum nor B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in any of the mammal tissue samples. A. phagocytophilum was not found in ticks collected from small mammals. Very low minimum prevalence was found for all pathogens (0.62% for Borrelia afzelii in ticks collected from small mammals, and 0.57%, 0.06%, and 0.19% for A. phagoctyophilum, B. afzelii, and Borrelia garinii, respectively, in questing ticks). The present study is the first report of borreliae from I. acuminatus and H. concinna from Hungary. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Tanczos B.,Szent Istvan University | Balogh N.,PraxisLab Kft | Kiraly L.,Borzas Small Animal Clinics | Biksi I.,Szent Istvan University | And 6 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2012

Hungary is traditionally regarded as a leishmaniasis-free country, and human or canine cases diagnosed locally have been recorded as imported. However, recent entomological surveys have verified the presence in Hungary of Phlebotomus neglectus and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi, which have been incriminated as competent vectors of Leishmania infantum elsewhere in Europe. Following the occurrence in October 2007 of an undisputable clinical case of L. infantum canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a 4-year-old female pug in a kennel of 20 dogs in Tolna province, an investigation was performed to assess the infection status in that canine population and to search for putative phlebotomine vectors. Another female pug became sick during the study period (May-November 2008) and L. infantum was confirmed as the causative agent. The other animals appeared clinically healthy; however, 4 additional dogs were found positive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (2 dogs), or by buffy-coat PCR (1 dog), or by both methods (1 dog). Hence the overall Leishmania infection prevalence in the kennel was 30% (6/20). All dogs were born in the same place and had been always kept outdoors. They had neither been abroad nor received a blood transfusion. No sand flies were collected with CDC Standard Miniature Light traps, Mosquito Magnet® X (MMX) dry ice-baited traps, or sticky traps placed either in or around the kennel and at nearby chicken yards during July and August of 2008 and 2009. Considering the dogs' historical background and the failure to trap any sand fly vectors in the kennel area, the origin of CanL in this site remains unexplained. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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