Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures

Utrecht, Netherlands

Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures

Utrecht, Netherlands
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Gringhuis S.I.,University of Amsterdam | Kaptein T.M.,University of Amsterdam | Wevers B.A.,University of Amsterdam | Theelen B.,Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures | And 3 more authors.
Nature Immunology | Year: 2012

Production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) by dendritic cells is crucial in host defense. Here we identify a previously unknown role for dectin-1 in the activation of a noncanonical caspase-8 inflammasome in response to fungi and mycobacteria. Dectin-1 induced both the production and maturation of IL-1β through signaling routes mediated by the kinase Syk. Whereas the CARD9-Bcl-10-MALT1 scaffold directed IL1B transcription, the recruitment of MALT1-caspase-8 and ASC into this scaffold was crucial for processing of pro-IL-1β by caspase-8. In contrast to activation of the canonical caspase-1 inflammasome, which requires additional activation of cytosolic receptors, activation of the noncanonical caspase-8 inflammasome was independent of pathogen internalization. Thus, dectin-1 acted as an extracellular sensor for pathogens that induced both IL-1β production and maturation through a noncanonical caspase-8-dependent inflammasome for protective immunity. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cloete M.,Stellenbosch University | Fourie P.H.,Stellenbosch University | Fourie P.H.,Citrus Research International | Damm U.,Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures | And 2 more authors.
Phytopathologia Mediterranea | Year: 2011

A survey was undertaken on apple and pear trees in the main pome fruit growing areas of the Western Cape of South Africa to determine the aetiology of trunk diseases with specific reference to pathogens known to occur on grapevine, which are frequently cultivated in close proximity to these orchards. Several fungal genera containing known trunk disease pathogens were found. Two Diplodia species, D. seriata and Diplodia sp., were isolated along with Neofusicoccum australe and N. vitifusiforme. Four Phaeoacremonium species, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Pm. iranianum, Pm. mortoniae and Pm. viticola, two Phomopsis species linked to clades identified in former studies as Phomopsis theicola and Phomopsis sp. 7, and Eutypa lata were found. In addition, Paraconiothyrium brasiliense, Pr. variabile and a Pyrenochaetalike species were also isolated. Diplodia seriata (56% of total isolates) and Pm. aleophilum (22%) were most frequently isolated. First reports from pear wood include the Phaeoacremonium spp. and Paraconiothyrium brasiliense, while new reports from apple include Pm. aleophilum, Ph. theicola, Phomopsis sp. 7, Pr. variabile and E. lata. A pathogenicity trial was undertaken to determine the role of these species on apple, pear and grapevine shoots. Neofusicoccum australe caused the longest lesions on grapevine shoots, while Pr. variabile, D. seriata, Pm. mortoniae and the Pyrenochaeta-like sp. caused lesions that were longer than non-inoculated and non-pathogen experimental controls. On pear shoots, Diplodia sp. and N. australe caused the longest lesions, followed by D. seriata and E. lata. On apple shoots, the longest lesions were caused by N. australe and Pm. iranianum. These results demonstrate that apple and pear trees in Western Cape orchards are hosts to many known trunk pathogens along with potential new trunk disease-causing fungi.

Li D.M.,Peking University | Shang P.P.,Peking University | Zhu L.,Peking University | De Hoog G.S.,Centraalbureau Voor Schimmelcultures
European Journal of Inflammation | Year: 2014

Rhino-orbital-cerebral mycosis (ROCM) is a life-threatening fungal disease associated mostly with Mucoralean fungi. The infection presents as headache, vision loss, proptosis, ptosis, painful ophthalmoplegia, and peripheral face palsy, with a high mortality (>80% for infections that spread to the brain) and severe morbidity, such as eyeball exenteration and vision loss. In our hospital, a 61-year-old woman with diabetes was diagnosed with rhino-orbital-cerebral infection caused by Alternaria infectoria. Cavernous sinus thromboses (CST) were seen in surgery, pathology, and MRI. She did not respond to potent antifungal therapy until the adding of anti-thrombosis drugs. By analyzing our case, together with the ones that have been published, we realized that fungal thrombosis in the cavernous sinus is the main pathophysiological problem in ROCM that typically shows mass enhancement within the cavernous sinus in radiographic images, thrombosis with characteristics of ischemia and infarction in pathology. Anticoagulation/antithrombus therapy might be helpful in the management of ROCM if potent antifungal treatment does not have effect. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

Zare R.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection | Gams W.,Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures
Mycological Progress | Year: 2016

This study focuses on the former Verticillium section Albo-erecta that included white or whitish species with verticillium-like, erect conidiophores. Its type species was Verticillium fungicola, which was transferred to Lecanicillium, a genus that otherwise contains species with prostrate conidiophores. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, 18S and 28S rDNA sequences revealed that this group is heterogeneous and its members belong to at least three families. The present study is a first step to its resolution. Supported by analyses of 68 sequences of ITS, 23 sequences of 18S and 43 sequences of 28S ribosomal DNA, the species are distributed over three families. In the Cordycipitaceae, Leptobacillium gen. nov. is described with L. leptobactrum comb. nov. and its new variety, calidius. In the Hypocreaceae, Hypomyces is treated with one new combination from former Nectriopsis, H. tubariicola, and two new anamorphic species, H. ellipsosporus and H. subglobosus; in Sphaerostilbella, one new anamorphic species, S. parabroomeana, is described. In the Bionectriaceae, anamorphic isolates of Nectriopsis requiring a new combination, N. lindauiana, and a new species, N. fuliginicola, are described. Parsimony analysis of the LSU suggests that Ovicillium gen. nov. with four new species, O. attenuatum, O. oosporum, O. subglobosum and O. napiforme, is a member of the Bionectriaceae by 93 % bootstrap support. Of uncertain family classification are Chlamydocillium gen. nov. with one new soil-borne species, C. cyanophilum, and Chlorocillium gen. nov. based on Acremonium griseum Petch. A few further white verticillium-like anamorphs, particularly V. biguttatum, could not yet be reclassified. © 2016 German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Stielow B.,Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures | Hensel G.,Fungarium Gunnar Hensel | Strobelt D.,Pilzberatungsstelle Altkreis Stollberg | Makonde H.M.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH | And 4 more authors.
Mycological Progress | Year: 2013

The rare apothecial, cupulate fungus Geopora pellita (Pyronemataceae) is characterized by a uniquely bright yellow-orange excipulum. We here re-examine its affiliations by use of morphological, molecular phylogenetic and ultrastructural analyses. G. pellita appears as phylogenetically rather isolated, being the sister group of a clade comprising Phaeangium, Picoa, the majority of the Tricharina species, and the remaining Geopora species. Based on its phylogenetic position and its unique combination of morphological characters, we assign G. pellita to Hoffmannoscypha, gen. nov., as H. pellita, comb. nov. As in a previous study, analyses of both large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA suggest that the remaining genus Geopora is paraphyletic, with the hypogeous, ptychothecial type species more closely related to Picoa and Phaeangium than to the greyish-brownish cupulate and apothecial Geopora spp., indicating that the latter should be reassigned to the genus Sepultaria. The current study also shows that ITS confirm LSU data regarding the polyphyly of Tricharina. © 2012 German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Mershon-Shier K.L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Deville J.G.,University of California at Los Angeles | Delair S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Fothergill A.W.,Fungus Testing Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Medical Mycology | Year: 2011

This report describes a chronically ill child who presented with high fever and was diagnosed with catheter-related sepsis. Aureobasidium pullulans variety melanigenum, a dematiaceous fungus that rarely causes opportunistic infections, was recovered from multiple blood cultures. Antifungal susceptibilities were performed and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for fluconazole was 64 mg/l, suggestive of fluconazole resistance. The patient made a full recovery after removal of the catheter line and treatment with liposomal amphotericin B. This is the first case report of an elevated in vitro fluconazole MIC of an A. pullulans isolate and only the third case of successful treatment of A. pullulans fungemia. © 2011 ISHAM.

Wang Q.-M.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Bai F.-Y.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Fungsin B.,Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research | Boekhout T.,Centraalbureau Voor Schimmelcultures | Nakase T.,Chiba Institute of Technology
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2011

The distinction and monophyletic property of the basidiomycetous yeast species in the Bulleribasidium clade of the order Tremellales was resolved by molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the combined sequences of the 18S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region including 5.8S rRNA gene and 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. The addition to the clade of new anamorphic species identified among ballistoconidium-forming yeasts isolated from China confirmed and strengthened the separation of this clade from other clades or lineages in the order Tremellales. A new anamorphic genus, Mingxiaea gen. nov. (type species Mingxiaea variabilis comb. nov.) is therefore proposed to accommodate the anamorphic species in the Bulleribasidium clade. Six new combinations are proposed for the described species of this clade which were formerly assigned to the genus Bullera. Four novel species in the new genus were identified among 16 ballistoconidium-forming yeast strains isolated from plant leaves collected in Hainan province, southern China, by D1/D2 and ITS sequence analyses. The novel species are described as Mingxiaea sanyaensis sp. nov. (type strain SY-3.23 T =AS 2. 3623T =CBS 11408T), Mingxiaea hainanensis (type strain WZS-8.13T =AS 2.4161T =CBS 11409T), Mingxiaea foliicola (type strain WZS-8.14T =AS 2.3518T =CBS 11407T) and Mingxiaea wuzhishanensis (type strain WZS-29.8T =AS 2.4163T 5CBS 11411T). © 2011 IUMS.

Illnait-Zaragozi M.-T.,Instituto Pedro Kouri | Martinez-Machin G.F.,Instituto Pedro Kouri | Fernandez-Andreu C.M.,Instituto Pedro Kouri | Boekhout T.,Centraalbureau Voor Schimmelcultures | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Human cryptococcal infections have been associated with bird droppings as a likely source of infection. Studies toward the local and global epidemiology of Cryptococcus spp. have been hampered by the lack of rapid, discriminatory, and exchangeable molecular typing methods. Methodology/Principal Findings: We selected nine microsatellite markers for high-resolution fingerprinting from the genome of C. neoformans var. grubii. This panel of markers was applied to a collection of clinical (n = 122) and environmental (n = 68; from pigeon guano) C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba. All markers proved to be polymorphic. The average number of alleles per marker was 9 (range 5-51). A total of 104 genotypes could be distinguished. The discriminatory power of this panel of markers was 0.993. Multiple clusters of related genotypes could be discriminated that differed in only one or two microsatellite markers. These clusters were assigned as microsatellite complexes. The majority of environmental isolates (>70%) fell into 1 microsatellite complex containing only few clinical isolates (49 environmental versus 2 clinical). Clinical isolates were segregated over multiple microsatellite complexes. Conclusions/Significance: A large genotypic variation exists in C. neoformans var. grubii. The genotypic segregation between clinical and environmental isolates from pigeon guano suggests additional source(s) of human cryptococcal infections. The selected panel of microsatellite markers is an excellent tool to study the epidemiology of C. neoformans var. grubii. © 2010 Illnait-Zaragozi et al.

Gams W.,Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures | Jaklitsch W.M.,University of Vienna | Kirschner R.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Reblova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Taxon | Year: 2010

Article 59.7 of the ICBN (Vienna Code) allows the epitypification of a name of a fungus, known until then only as an anamorph, with teleomorphic material in order to avoid introducing an additional name. Redhead suggested calling this procedure teleotypification. We demonstrate that it is not desirable to apply teleotypification to newly discovered teleomorphs of fungi for which a suitable teleomorph genus is available. Describing a newly found anamorphic fungus under a teleomorph-typified generic name may be defended, provided generic homogeneity is proven with molecular methods and no suitable anamorph genus is available. Alternative proposals will be submitted to either return to the previous situation without teleotypification or to restrict teleotypification explicitly to cases where the original genus is monotypic or at least clearly monophyletic, and no suitable teleomorph genus is available.

Wevers B.A.,University of Amsterdam | Kaptein T.M.,University of Amsterdam | Zijlstra-Willems E.M.,University of Amsterdam | Theelen B.,Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures | And 3 more authors.
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2014

Recognition of fungal pathogens by C-type lectin receptor (CLR) dectin-1 on human dendritic cells is essential for triggering protective antifungal TH1 and TH17 immune responses. We show that Fonsecaea monophora, a causative agent of chromoblastomycosis, a chronic fungal skin infection, evades these antifungal responses by engaging CLR mincle and suppressing IL-12, which drives TH1 differentiation. Dectin-1 triggering by F. monophora activates transcription factor IRF1, which is crucial for IL12A transcription via nucleosome remodeling. However, simultaneous F. monophora binding to mincle induces an E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2-dependent degradation pathway, via Syk-CARD9-mediated PKB signaling, that leads to loss of nuclear IRF1 activity, hence blocking IL12A transcription. The absence of IL-12 leads to impaired TH1 responses and promotes TH2 polarization. Notably, mincle is similarly exploited by other chromoblastomycosis-associated fungi to redirect TH responses. Thus, mincle is a fungal receptor that can suppress antifungal immunity and, as such, is a potential therapeutic target. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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