Atlanta, GA, United States
Atlanta, GA, United States

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is the leading national public health institute of the United States. The CDC is a federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services and is headquartered in unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, a few miles northeast of the Atlanta city limits. Its main goal is to protect public health and safety through the control and prevention of disease, injury, and disability. The CDC focuses national attention on developing and applying disease control and prevention. It especially focuses its attention on infectious disease, food borne pathogens, environmental health, occupational safety and health, health promotion, injury prevention and educational activities designed to improve the health of United States citizens. In addition, the CDC researches and provides information on non-infectious diseases such as obesity and diabetes and is a founding member of the International Association of National Public Health Institutes. Wikipedia.


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Mathews T.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National vital statistics reports : from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: This report presents 2006 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. RESULTS: The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.68 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006, a 3 percent decline from 6.86 in 2005. Infant mortality rates ranged from 4.52 per 1,000 live births for Central and South American mothers to 13.35 for non-Hispanic black mothers. Infant mortality rates were higher for those infants whose mothers were born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia, were unmarried, or were born in multiple deliveries. Infant mortality was also higher for male infants and infants born preterm or at low birthweight. The neonatal mortality rate was essentially unchanged in 2006 (4.46) from 2005 (4.54). The postneonatal mortality rate decreased 4 percent, from 2.32 in 2005 to 2.22 in 2006. Infants born at the lowest gestational ages and birthweights have a large impact on overall U.S. infant mortality. For example, more than half of all infant deaths in the United States in 2006 (54 percent) occurred to the 2 percent of infants born very preterm (less than 32 weeks of gestation). Still, infant mortality rates for late preterm infants (34-36 weeks of gestation) were three times those for term infants (37-41 weeks). The three leading causes of infant death--congenital malformations, low birthweight, and sudden infant death syndrome--taken together accounted for 46 percent of all infant deaths. The percentage of infant deaths that were "preterm-related" was 36.1 percent in 2006. The preterm-related infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic black mothers was 3.4 times higher and the rate for Puerto Rican mothers was 84 percent higher than for non-Hispanic white mothers.


Ford E.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Objectives The objective of this study was to examine trends in predicted 10-year risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) from 1999 to 2000 and from 2009 to 2010 among adults in the United States. Background Examining trends in predicted risk for CHD and CVD may offer insights into the direction of cardiovascular health. Methods Data from 7,751 fasting participants, ages 30 to 74 years, of 6 consecutive 2-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Predicted 10-year risk for CHD and CVD was calculated using risk equations derived from data from the Framingham Heart Study. Results Mean predicted 10-year risk for CHD was 7.2% during 1999 to 2000 and 6.5% during 2009 to 2010 (p for linear trend = 0.005), and for CVD it was 9.2% during 1999 to 2000 and 8.7% during 2009 to 2010 (p for linear trend = 0.152). Mean predicted risk for CHD and CVD declined significantly among participants ages 40 to 49 years, 50 to 59 years, 60 to 74 years, and among women. Mean predicted risk for CHD declined significantly among men and whites but nonsignificantly among Mexican Americans (p for linear trend = 0.067). Mean predicted risk increased nonsignificantly among African Americans for both CHD (p for linear trend = 0.063) and CVD (p for linear trend = 0.059). Of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors included in the risk equations, favorable trends were noted for mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean concentrations of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking status. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus worsened. Conclusions Predicted 10-year risk for CHD improved modestly. Reversing the seemingly rising trend in risk among African-American adults should be a high priority. © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Heron M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National vital statistics reports : from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System | Year: 2012

This report presents final 2008 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2008. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. in 2008, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for approximately 76 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2008 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.


Heron M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National vital statistics reports : from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System | Year: 2011

This report presents final 2007 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2007. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2007, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Cerebrovascular diseases; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Septicemia. They accounted for approximately 76 percent of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2007 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.


Arias E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National vital statistics reports : from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System | Year: 2011

This report presents complete period life tables by race, Hispanic origin, and sex for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 2007. Data used to prepare the 2007 life tables are 2007 final mortality statistics, July 1, 2007, population estimates based on the 2000 decennial census, and 2007 Medicare data for ages 66-100. The methods used to estimate the life tables for the total, white, and black populations were first used in annual life tables in 2005 and have been in use since that time (1). The methods used to estimate the life tables for the Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black populations were first used to estimate U.S. life tables by Hispanic origin for data year 2006 (2). In 2007, the overall expectation of life at birth was 77.9 years, representing an increase of 0.2 years from life expectancy in 2006. From 2006 to 2007, life expectancy at birth increased for all groups considered. It increased for males (from 75.1 to 75.4) and females (from 80.2 to 80.4), the white (from 78.2 to 78.4) and black (from 73.2 to 73.6) populations, the Hispanic population (from 80.6 to 80.9), the non-Hispanic white population (from 78.1 to 78.2), and the non-Hispanic black population (from 72.9 to 73.2).


Osterman M.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National vital statistics reports : from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System | Year: 2011

This report presents data for selected items exclusive to the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth as well as key items considered not comparable between the 1989 (unrevised) and 2003 (revised) versions for states and territories that implemented the 2003 revision as of January 1, 2008. Information is shown for educational attainment, tobacco use during pregnancy, month prenatal care began, and checkboxes in the following categories: "risk factors in this pregnancy," "obstetric procedures," "characteristics of labor and delivery," "method of delivery," "abnormal conditions of the newborn," and "congenital anomalies of the newborn." Descriptive statistics are presented on births occurring in 2008 to residents of the 27 states that implemented the revised birth certificate. There were 2,748,302 births to residents of the 27-state reporting area, representing 65 percent of 2008 U.S. births. About 78 percent of women had at least a high school diploma; 24.5 percent had an advanced education. One out of 10 women smoked during pregnancy (24-state reporting area) and one out of five smokers quit while pregnant. Almost three-quarters of women began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. The rate of prepregnancy diabetes was 6.5 per 1,000 and gestational diabetes was 40.6; risk of both types rose with maternal age. Nearly one out of four women had a primary cesarean delivery; less than 1 out of 10 women had a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. About 27 percent of women attempted a trial of labor before a cesarean delivery. Seven percent of all infants were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit.


Mathews T.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National vital statistics reports : from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System | Year: 2011

This report presents 2007 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.75 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2007, not significantly different than the rate of 6.68 in 2006. Infant mortality rates ranged from 4.57 per 1,000 live births for mothers of Central and South American origin to 13.31 for non-Hispanic black mothers. Infant mortality rates were higher for those infants who were born in multiple deliveries; for those whose mothers were born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia; and for mothers who were unmarried. Infant mortality was also higher for male infants and infants born preterm or at low birthweight. The neonatal mortality rate was essentially unchanged from 2006 (4.46) to 2007 (4.42). The postneonatal mortality rate increased 5 percent from 2.22 in 2006 to 2.33 in 2007, similar to the rate in 2005 (2.32). Infants born at the lowest gestational ages and birthweights have a large impact on overall U.S. infant mortality. For example, more than one-half of all infant deaths in the United States in 2007 (54 percent) occurred to the 2 percent of infants born very preterm (less than 32 weeks of gestation). Still, infant mortality rates for late preterm infants (34-36 weeks of gestation) were 3.6 times, and those for early term (37-38 weeks) infants were 1.5 times, those for infants born at 39-41 weeks of gestation, the gestational age with the lowest infant mortality rate. The three leading causes of infant death--congenital malformations, low birthweight, and sudden infant death syndrome--accounted for 45 percent of all infant deaths. The percentage of infant deaths that were "preterm-related" was 36.0 percent in 2007. The preterm-related infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic black mothers was 3.4 times higher, and the rate for Puerto Rican mothers was 71 percent higher than for non-Hispanic white mothers.


Bern C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

A 42-year-old woman presents to her physician with a letter stating that after she made a recent blood donation, a serologic test of her donated blood was positive for Chagas' disease. The patient was born in El Salvador and moved to the United States when she was 18 years of age. Her three children are 8, 13, and 16 years of age. Her medical history is remarkable only for a cholecystectomy 2 years earlier; she reports no cardiac or gastrointestinal symptoms. Her physical examination is unremarkable. Electrocardiography (ECG) shows sinus rhythm at a rate of 72 beats per minute and a complete right bundle-branch block. An echocardiogram shows mild left ventricular segmental wall-motion abnormalities, but a normal ejection fraction and left ventricular diameter. The patient is referred to an infectious-disease consultant, who recommends antitrypanosomal therapy. Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Osterman M.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National vital statistics reports : from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System | Year: 2011

This report presents 2008 data on receipt of epidural and spinal anesthesia as collected on the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics of women giving birth and the circumstances of births in which epidural or spinal anesthesia is used to relieve the pain of labor for vaginal deliveries. Descriptive statistics are presented on births occurring in 2008 to residents of 27 states that had implemented the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth as of January 1, 2008. Analyses are limited to singleton births in vaginal deliveries that occurred in the 27-state reporting area only and are not generalizable to the United States as a whole. Overall, 61 percent of women who had a singleton birth in a vaginal delivery in the 27 states in 2008 received epidural or spinal anesthesia; non-Hispanic white women received epidural or spinal anesthesia more often (69 percent) than other racial groups. Among Hispanic origin groups, Puerto Rican women were most likely to receive epidural or spinal anesthesia (68 percent). Levels of treatment with epidural or spinal anesthesia decreased by advancing age of mother. Levels increased with increasing maternal educational attainment. Early initiation of prenatal care increased the likelihood of epidural or spinal anesthesia receipt, as did attendance at birth by a physician. Use of epidural or spinal anesthesia was more common in vaginal deliveries assisted by forceps (84 percent) or vacuum extraction (77 percent) than in spontaneous vaginal deliveries (60 percent). Use of epidural or spinal anesthesia was less likely when infants were born prior to 34 weeks of gestation or weighed less than 1,500 grams. Women with chronic and gestational diabetes were more likely to receive an epidural or spinal anesthesia than women with no pregnancy risk factors. Precipitous labor (less than 3 hours) was associated with decreased epidural or spinal anesthesia receipt. longer second stage of labor, and fetal distress (compared with women who receive opiates intravenously or by injection) (1,5,6). Severe headache, maternal hypotension, maternal fever, and urinary retention have also been associated with epidural/spinal anesthesia receipt (5). This report examines the relationship between epidural/spinal anesthesia receipt and selected characteristics of the mother and of labor among vaginal deliveries in the 27-state reporting area as reported on the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth.


Ventura S.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National vital statistics reports : from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System | Year: 2012

This report presents detailed pregnancy rates for 1990-2008, updating a national series of rates extending since 1976. Tabular and graphical data on pregnancy rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status are presented and described. In 2008, an estimated 6,578,000 pregnancies resulted in 4,248,000 live births, 1,212,000 induced abortions, and 1,118,000 fetal losses. The 2008 pregnancy rate of 105.5 pregnancies per 1000 women aged 15-44 is 9 percent below the 1990 peak of 115.8. The teen pregnancy rate dropped 40 percent from 1990 to 2008, reaching a historic low of 69.8 per 1000 women aged 15-19. Pregnancy rates have declined significantly for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic teenagers. Rates in 2008 for non-Hispanic black and Hispanic teenagers were two to three times higher than the rates for non-Hispanic white teenagers. Pregnancy rates for women in their early 20s declined to the lowest level in more than three decades, although the declines have been more modest than for teenagers. Pregnancy rates for women aged 25-29 have changed relatively little since 1990, while rates for women in their 30s and early 40s increased.

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