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A female Aedes aegypti mosquito is seen on the forearm of a health technician in a laboratory conducting research on preventing the spread of the Zika virus and other mosquito-borne diseases, at the entomology department of the Ministry of Public Health in Guatemala City, February 4, 2016. REUTERS/Josue Decavele More RIO DE JANEIRO (Reuters) - Scientists identified the Zika virus in the saliva and urine of two infected patients, a top Brazilian biomedical research institution said on Friday, prompting its president to urge pregnant women not to kiss strangers just as local carnival celebrations begin. The discovery added to the rising concern over Zika, which is spreading rapidly in the Americans and has been linked to thousands of severe birth defects in Brazil. They said they used genetic testing to identify the virus in saliva and urine samples from two patients who had symptoms caused by Zika infection, and determined that the virus was active, meaning it had the potential to cause infection, scientists at the public Oswaldo Cruz Foundation said. They said more research was needed to determine whether Zika could be transmitted by either fluid. This marked the first time the mosquito-borne infection that has prompted a global health scare has been detected in saliva and urine, the scientists told reporters in Rio de Janeiro, host of the 2016 summer Olympic Games in August. The vast majority of Zika infections have been caused by mosquito bites, but word surfaced this week of infections caused by sexual transmission and blood transfusions. These developments come just as Rio kicks off its annual carnival celebrations, a raucous five-day bacchanalia known for street parties and lots of alcohol and kissing. Some revelers even keep track of the number of complete strangers they kiss. Because Zika has been linked to the birth defect microcephaly, a condition in which infants are born with abnormally small heads and can suffer developmental problems, the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation scientists recommended that pregnant women take special precautions and avoid crowds during carnival. "In light of the possibility of being in contact with someone who is infected, do not kiss, obviously," Dr. Paulo Gadelha, the foundation's president, told reporters. "We cannot say today that there is no possibility of transmission," Gadelha added. Fiocruz, as the foundation is informally known, said it made the discovery after carrying out a partial genome sequencing of the virus found in the samples from the two patients. "Imagine the social and economic impact of having a mega sporting event with millions of attendees with a brutal infection in the country ... especially at a time we are going through an economic crisis," said Dr. Leonardo Vedolin, a neuroradiologist in Porto Alegre. There is no treatment or vaccine for Zika. Most infections cause either no symptoms or symptoms including a mild fever, skin rash and conjunctivitis that normally last for two to seven days, according to the World Health Organization. Its association with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, a condition in which the body's immune system attacks part of the nervous system, has increased alarm over Zika. Researchers are working to confirm that the virus causes those conditions. Brazil's government may decide to revise a law next week that restricts the country's ability to send medical samples abroad, and does not clearly define protocol when a public health emergency, like Zika, is involved. Two government sources said the decision would be made at a meeting next Wednesday between the health, science and technology ministries as well as President Dilma Rousseff's chief of staff. Brazil's health ministry said it had been collaborating with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to try to nail down whether Zika causes Guillain-Barré. Of medical samples collected in Salvador, in northeast Brazil, one third will remain in Brazil and the rest will go to the United States for research, the ministry said.


Roberts R.E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Duong H.T.,Centers for Disease Control
Sleep | Year: 2014

Study Objectives: To examine the prospective, reciprocal association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. Design: A community-based two-wave cohort study. Setting: A metropolitan area with a population of over 4 million. Participants: 4,175 youths 11-17 at baseline, and 3,134 of these followed up a year later. Measurements: Depression is measured using both symptoms of depression and DSM-IV major depression. Sleep deprivation is defined as ≤ 6 h of sleep per night. Results: Sleep deprivation at baseline predicted both measures of depression at follow-up, controlling for depression at baseline. Examining the reciprocal association, major depression at baseline, but not symptoms predicted sleep deprivation at follow-up. Conclusion: These results are the first to document reciprocal effects for major depression and sleep deprivation among adolescents using prospective data. The data suggest reduced quantity of sleep increases risk for major depression, which in turn increases risk for decreased sleep.


Cheng W.Y.,Centers for Disease Control
Emerging infectious diseases | Year: 2011

During November 2008-May 2009, an outbreak of 53 measles cases occurred in Taiwan. Of these, 3 cases were sporadic, and the other 50 cases could be grouped into 8 clusters by genetic analysis. We determined 7 H1 genotypes linked to importation and 1 G3 genotype linked to an untraceable source.


Lopiano K.K.,Statistical and Applied Mathematical science Institute SAMSI | Young L.J.,University of Florida | Gotway C.A.,Centers for Disease Control
Biostatistics | Year: 2013

In environmental studies, relationships among variables that aremisaligned in space are routinely assessed. Because the data are misaligned, kriging is often used to predict the covariate at the locations where the response is observed. Using kriging predictions to estimate regression parameters in linear regression models introduces a Berkson error, which induces a covariance structure that is challenging to estimate. In addition, if the parameters associated with kriging (e.g. trend surface parameters and spatial covariance parameters) are estimated, then an additional uncertainty is introduced.We characterize the total measurement error as part of a broader class of Berkson error models and develop an estimated generalized least squares estimator using estimated covariance parameters. In working with the induced model, we fully account for the error structure and estimate the covariance parameters using likelihood-based methods. We provide insight into when it is important to fully account for the covariance structure induced from the different error sources.We assess the performance of the estimators using simulation and illustrate the methodology using publicly available data from the US Environmental Protection Agency. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Fowler D.N.,Centers for Disease Control | Faulkner M.,University of Texas at Austin
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment | Year: 2011

In this article, meta-analytic techniques are used to examine existing intervention studies (n = 11) to determine their effects on substance abuse among female samples of intimate partner abuse (IPA) survivors. This research serves as a starting point for greater attention in research and practice to the implementation of evidence-based, integrated services to address co-occurring substance abuse and IPA victimization among women as major intersecting public health problems. The results show greater effects in three main areas. First, greater effect sizes exist in studies where larger numbers of women experienced current IPA. Second, studies with a lower mean age also showed greater effect sizes than studies with a higher mean age. Lastly, studies with smaller sample sizes have greater effects. This research helps to facilitate cohesion in the knowledge base on this topic, and the findings of this meta-analysis, in particular, contribute needed information to gaps in the literature on the level of promise of existing interventions to impact substance abuse in this underserved population. © 2011.

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