CenterLine Windsor Ltd.

Windsor, Canada

CenterLine Windsor Ltd.

Windsor, Canada
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Eiliat H.,University of Windsor | Nie X.,University of Windsor | Tjong J.,Ford Motor Company | Villafuerte J.,Centerline Windsor Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014

This research focuses on study of feasibility of using ceramic oxide coatings on the cylinder wall of hypoeutectic aluminum silicon alloy engine blocks. Coatings are achieved in an aqueous electrolytic bath and composed of both alpha and gamma phases of Al2O3 and have shown promising wear resistance. Composition and acidity level of the electrolyte creates a variation of surface roughness, coating hardness and thickness which has direct influence on the wear behavior of the sliding surfaces. The effect of load bearing and coating morphology on coefficient of friction was studied. SEM images of the substrate showed no predominant wear behavior or delamination. Coefficient of friction and wear rate were also measured. This study shows the importance of surface structure on oil retention and wear rate. Coarser coatings can be desirable under starved oil condition since they show lower coefficient of friction. This can be explained due to the oil retention structure of coarse coatings with more topographical variance. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.


Shayegan G.,University of Waterloo | Mahmoudi H.,University of Waterloo | Ghelichi R.,Polytechnic of Milan | Ghelichi R.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Materials and Design | Year: 2014

Aluminum particles were successfully sprayed on wrought magnesium AZ31B extrusion using the cold spray technology. Cold spray high impact velocity of particles colliding with the substrate induced beneficial compressive residual stresses. Magnitude of the residual stress at the surface and its distribution through the thickness were measured using X-ray diffraction. With particle spraying velocity of 400. m/s, the residual stress was measured to be -25. MPa at the surface. The process of collision and development of residual stress was then modeled using LS-DYNA software to study the effect of the cold spray process parameters on the residual stress profile. Various models were employed to simulate the impact of the single and multiple particles. An asymmetric material model that considers the strain rate effect was employed to model AZ31B different behavior in tension and compression. Results of simulations for impact of multiple particles were compared with the results of XRD measurements on the substrate surface and through the depth of the substrate. After the validation of the models, a parametric study was performed on the impact of a single particle to find the optimum cold spray particle velocity, size, shape, incident angle, and friction parameters. Parameters leading to the optimum residual stress profile are introduced herein. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Berube G.,University of Ottawa | Yandouzi M.,University of Ottawa | Zuniga A.,University of Chile | Ajdelsztajn L.,University of Ottawa | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology | Year: 2012

In this study, aluminum alloy Al-5Fe-V-Si (in wt.%) feedstock powder, produced by rapid solidification (RS) using the gas atomization process, was selected to produce high-temperature resistant Al-alloy coatings using the cold gas dynamic spraying process (CGDS). The alloy composition was chosen for its mechanical properties at elevated temperature for potential applications in internal-combustion (IC) engines. The CGDS spray process was selected due to its relatively low operating temperature, thus preventing significant heating of the particles during spraying and as such allowing the original phases of the feedstock powder to be preserved within the coatings. The microstructure and phases stability was investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetery techniques. The coatings mechanical properties were evaluated through bond strength and microhardness testing. The study revealed the conservation of the complex microstructure of the rapid solidified powder during the spray process. Four distinct microstructures were observed as well as two different phases, namely a Al 13(Fe,V) 3Si silicide phase and a metastable (Al,Si) x(Fe,V) Micro-quasicrystalline Icosahedral (MI) phase. Aging of the coating samples was performed and confirmed that the phase transformation of the metastable phases and coarsening of the nanosized precipitates will occurs at around 400 °C. The metastable MI phase was determined to be thermally stable up to 390 °C, after which a phase transformation to silicide starts to occur. © ASM International.


Villafuerte J.,CenterLine Windsor Ltd.
Advanced Materials and Processes | Year: 2014

Cold spray is beneficial in applications that use heat-sensitive substrate materials or those with difficult-to-reach spray areas. One example involves spraying inside small-diameter, heat-sensitive tubes or bores to provide corrosion resistance. Cold spray produces deposits that are oxide-free and fully dense with acceptable mechanical properties. The process requires heating of a pressurized carrier gas that is passed through a 'DeLaval' convergent-divergent nozzle. The divergent section of the nozzle creates a supersonic gas jet as the carrier gas expands toward the nozzle exit. The spray material is injected into the gas jet either upstream or downstream of the nozzle throat. Each material requires a specific minimum particle velocity to successfully form a well bonded and dense deposit, depending on the process temperature.


Villafuerte J.,CenterLine Windsor Ltd. | Wright D.,Accuwright Industries
Advanced Materials and Processes | Year: 2010

A thermal spray shop in Arizona has taken the industry lead to qualify cold spray as an adequate repair methodology for high value aircraft components made of aluminum and/or magnesium alloys, including gear box housings, inlet housings, and aircraft actuators. The shop uses commercially available low-pressure cold spray equipment to perform mechanical and corrosion repairs of these components following FAA-approved procedures. The components are then machined to required dimensional specifications. After machining, protective finishes, primers, and top coats can be successfully applied to the required areas. After basic surface preparation, the corroded area can be successfully restored using cold spray. Cold spray can produce high quality thick metallic deposits of pure metals, alloys, and composites having extra low oxide content and negligible or no porosity.


Villafuerte J.,CenterLine Windsor Ltd. | Wright D.,Accuwright Industries
Welding Journal (Miami, Fla) | Year: 2010

Cold spray constitutes a family of emerging solid-state processes that expand the capabilities of traditional thermal spraying into unique applications that are either technically or economically prohibitive for traditional thermal spray. Cold spray can produce high-quality, ultrathick metallic deposits of specially formulated metal powders with low oxide content and porosity. Low-pressure cold spraying has become a reliable, accurate, and economical technique for the manufacturing or refurbishing of rotatable sputtering targets for high-volume thin-film deposition.


Villafuerte J.,CenterLine Windsor Ltd.
Surface Engineering | Year: 2010

Some of the latest and future trends in cold spray technology are discussed. The existing cold spray technology is increasingly being used in a variety of industries for a number of applications, including the corrosion resistant repairs on sensitive materials. A number of organizations from around the world are continuing to advance the technology to meet the requirements of the latest and emerging applications. One of the latest advancements include the development of shockwave induced spraying, a novel process that allows solid state deposition of materials beyond conventional cold spray with high deposition efficiencies and rates. It is expected shockwave induced spraying will emerge as the preferred solid state spraying process for OEM production where high productivity at low cost is required. Some other potential advances include the development of smaller more portable low pressure cold spray units for field and other applications.


Villafuerte J.,Centerline Windsor Ltd.
Metal Finishing | Year: 2010

Cold spray is a coating process that uses a high-speed gas jet to accelerate powder particles toward a substrate. Some of the characteristics of cold spray include the ability to form dense deposits with extremely low oxygen content, free of residual tensile stresses, grain growth, recrystallization zones, and phase changes. In low-pressure cold spray, air or nitrogen at relatively low pressure is also preheated, and then forced through a DeLaval nozzle. At the nozzle, the expansion of the gas produces the conversion of enthalpy into kinetic energy, which accelerates the gas flow to supersonic regime while reducing its temperature. Cold spray technology falls under the larger family of thermal spray processes, and it is not here to replace any of the well-established thermal spray methods. Because of its low-temperature deposition, cold spray can be used to embed micro-sensors, along with functional coatings, on surfaces for smart structures.


Ye H.,Centerline Windsor Ltd | Yin Y.,Centerline Windsor Ltd | Wang J.,Centerline Windsor Ltd
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology | Year: 2015

While commercially available computational fluid dynamic packages are employed nowadays to analyze the spraying behavior of the cold spray (CS) system and optimize the nozzle geometry design, using these packages is often prohibitive because of complex computational resource requirements and expensive copyright licenses. This paper proposes a quick and economical method for predicting the performance of the CS system, while asking for minimal computational resource. A one-dimensional adiabatic friction model with the consideration of friction was developed to calculate the critical pressure of nozzles under different expansion ratios and the gas/particle velocity at different spraying conditions. The accuracy of the critical pressure calculation was evidenced by polymeric nozzle destructive tests. The particle velocities achieved from the nozzles with different expansion ratios were measured and compared with the velocity values calculated by the model. The suggested adiabatic friction model is validated by the well-matched values between the calculated results and the experimental data. © 2015, ASM International.

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