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Arias A.A.,University of Liege | Ongena M.,Center Wallon Of Biologie Industrielle | Devreese B.,Ghent University | Terrak M.,University of Liege | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Lantibiotics are heat-stable peptides characterized by the presence of thioether amino acid lanthionine and methyllanthionine. They are capable to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus, the causative agents of food-borne diseases or nosocomial infections. Lantibiotic biosynthetic machinery is encoded by gene cluster composed by a structural gene that codes for a pre-lantibiotic peptide and other genes involved in pre-lantibiotic modifications, regulation, export and immunity. Methodology/Findings: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1 was found to produce an antimicrobial peptide, named amylolysin, active on an array of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant S. aureus. Genome characterization led to the identification of a putative lantibiotic gene cluster that comprises a structural gene (amlA) and genes involved in modification (amlM), transport (amlT), regulation (amlKR) and immunity (amlFE). Disruption of amlA led to loss of biological activity, confirming thus that the identified gene cluster is related to amylolysin synthesis. MALDI-TOF and LC-MS analysis on purified amylolysin demonstrated that this latter corresponds to a novel lantibiotic not described to date. The ability of amylolysin to interact in vitro with the lipid II, the carrier of peptidoglycan monomers across the cytoplasmic membrane and the presence of a unique modification gene suggest that the identified peptide belongs to the group B lantibiotic. Amylolysin immunity seems to be driven by only two AmlF and AmlE proteins, which is uncommon within the Bacillus genus. Conclusion/Significance: Apart from mersacidin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains Y2 and HIL Y-85,544728, reports on the synthesis of type B-lantibiotic in this species are scarce. This study reports on a genetic and structural characterization of another representative of the type B lantibiotic in B. amyloliquefaciens. Copyright: © 2013 Arguelles Arias et al. Source

Koubaier H.B.H.,Ecole Superieure des Industries Alimentaires de Tunis | Koubaier H.B.H.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Organique Et Structurale | Snoussi A.,Ecole Superieure des Industries Alimentaires de Tunis | Snoussi A.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Organique Et Structurale | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2014

In the present study, betalains content, phenolic composition, and antioxidant activity of different parts of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. conditiva) (i.e., roots and stems) were compared. Crude extract of root showed the highest betalain content with a maximum of 53 ± 4 mg betanin eq and 46 ± 3 mg vulgaxantin I eq g-1 of extract stems showed higher total phenolic concentration than roots, ranging between 2.0 ± 0.4 and 14.6 ± 0.5 mg gallic acid eq-1 of extract. Chemical composition was analyzed using LC-MS. Betalains (vulgaxanthin I, betanin, and isobetanin) and phenolics (gallic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid myricetin, quercetin, rutin, kampferol) were identified in roots and stems. Betalain extract obtained from roots showed higher antioxidant activity than extract obtained from stems. Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Alloue-Boraud W.A.M.,University of Liege | Alloue-Boraud W.A.M.,Nangui Abrogoua University | N'Guessan K.F.,Nangui Abrogoua University | Djeni N.'D.T.,Nangui Abrogoua University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Saccharomyces cerevisiae C8-5 and Candida tropicalis F0-5 isolated from traditional sorghum beer were tested for kinetic parameters on barley malt extract, YPD (863 medium) and for alcohol production. The results showed that C. tropicalis has the highest maximum growth rate and the lowest doubling time. Values were 0.22 and 0.32 h−1 for maximum growth rate, 3 h 09 min and 2 h 09 min for doubling time respectively on barley malt extract and YPD. On contrary, glucose consumption was the fastest with S. cerevisiae (−0.36 and −0.722 g/l/h respectively on barley malt extract and YPD). When these two yeasts were used as starters in pure culture and co-culture at proportion of 1:1 and 2:1 (cell/cell) for barley malt extract fermentation, we noticed that maltose content increased first from 12.12 g/l to 13.62–16.46 g/l and then decreased. The highest increase was obtained with starter C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. On contrary, glucose content decreased throughout all the fermentation process. For all the starters used, the major part of the ethanol was produced at 16 h of fermentation. Values obtained in the final beers were 11.4, 11.6, 10.4 and 10.9 g/l for fermentation conducted with S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 1:1 and C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. Cell viability measurement during the fermentation by using flow cytometry revealed that the lowest mean channel fluorescence for FL3 (yeast rate of death) was obtained with C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1 after 48 h of fermentation. © 2014, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Source

Snoussi A.,Ecole Superieure des Industries Alimentaires de Tunis ESIAT | Snoussi A.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Organique Et Structurale | Hayet B.H.K.,Ecole Superieure des Industries Alimentaires de Tunis ESIAT | Hayet B.H.K.,Laboratoire Of Chimie Organique Et Structurale | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Different extracts from myrtle berries were obtained using alcohol-water mixtures as an extraction medium in the range of 60-90% (v/v) to study the extraction efficiency in the preparation of myrtle liqueur. Flavonoids and anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry and quantified during the maceration period by HPLC coupled with ultraviolet/visible detection. The antioxidant activity was tested by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Dry matter, pH, and color parameters (L, a, b) were also analyzed. At the end of the maceration period, EE80 showed better anthocyanins stability and the highest total antioxidant activity (87.5%). These results suggest that the use of ethanol 80% provides the extract with the best characteristics for liqueur preparation. The present study contributes significantly to increase the marketing appeal of myrtle berries. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Lejeune A.,University of Liege | Lejeune A.,Center Wallon Of Biologie Industrielle | Delvigne F.,University of Liege | Delvigne F.,Center Wallon Of Biologie Industrielle | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Yeast is a widely used microorganism at the industrial level because of its biomass and metabolite production capabilities. However, due to its sensitivity to the glucose effect, problems occur during scale-up to the industrial scale. Hydrodynamic conditions are not ideal in large-scale bioreactors, and glucose concentration gradients can arise when these bioreactors are operating in fed-batch mode. We have studied the effects of such gradients in a scale-down reactor, which consists of a mixed part linked to a non-mixed part by a recirculation pump, in order to mimic the hydrodynamic conditions encountered at the large scale. During the fermentation tests in the scale-down reactor, there was a drop in both biomass yield (ratio between the biomass produced and the glucose added) and trehalose production and an increase in both fermentation time (time between inoculation and beginning of stationary phase) and ethanol production. We have developed a stochastic model which explains these effects as the result of an induction process determined mainly by the hydrodynamic conditions. The concentration profiles experienced by the microorganisms during the scale-down tests were expressed and linked to the biomass yields of the scale-down tests. © 2009 Society for Industrial Microbiology. Source

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