Center Urbanisation Culture Societe

Montréal, Canada

Center Urbanisation Culture Societe

Montréal, Canada
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Pham T.-T.-H.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Apparicio P.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Landry S.,University of South Florida | Lewnard J.,P.A. College
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2017

Street trees provide a wide range of benefits for cities. Street tree cover (STC) is explained by urban form, social stratification and lifestyle theories that operate at multiple scales. In this paper we examine how the urban form (street characteristics), social stratification and lifestyle (socio-demographics) account for variations of STC in Montréal. Tree cover was identified from Quickbird images and then overlaid on street segments to compute the STC. Each street segment was nested in a census tract. We used 2-level models with mixed effects and interactions (between street attributes and socio-demographic variables) while introducing a spatial term. Political, socio-economic or other explanatory factors operating at the tract level can potentially explain 17.6% of the variation of STC. Overall, the street characteristics explained more variation in STC than the socio-demographic context. Lifestyle is less important than social stratification. Street length is positively associated with STC; street width and the percentage of duplexes and triplexes are negatively associated with STC, while construction age has a u-shaped effect on STC. Interactions show that STC is higher in expensive and highly-educated areas that have residential streets or streets with large setback (sidewalk). Areas predominantly comprised of low-income households could have higher or lower STC depending on the number of buildings and the percentage of duplexes and triplexes. Streetscape and socio-demographic contexts intertwine to create complex patterns of STC. Greening programs should be designed carefully according to local contexts since certain types of greening can lead to gentrification and displacement of low-income households. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Carrier M.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Apparicio P.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Seguin A.-M.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Crouse D.,805 Sherbrooke Street West
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2014

Analyzing the spatial dispersion of pollutants has led researchers to develop measures in order to determine whether certain population groups are disproportionately exposed to these hazards. A proxy of the distance from major roads, mathematical modelling, and exposure as established by pollutant measurement are three of the main techniques developed to determine environmental inequity with regard to a particular group in the broader population. A number of the studies performed have concluded that the low-income population and, to a lesser extent, visible minorities tend to reside in the most polluted areas. The main objective of this article is to compare the results obtained from three techniques for analyzing the spatial concentration of pollutant emissions on the Island of Montreal. The second objective is to determine whether groups vulnerable to air pollutants-namely, individuals under 15. years old and the elderly-and those who tend to be located in the most polluted areas-i.e., visible minorities and the low-income population-are affected by environmental inequities associated with air pollution. The results obtained from the three techniques for evaluating environmental equity firstly show that there are differences between these techniques. Secondly, they show that the groups selected based on age are not affected by environmental inequities. Finally, they indicate that the low-income population and, to a lesser extent, visible minorities in Montreal more frequently live near major roads and in areas with higher pollutant concentrations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Seguin A.-M.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Apparicio P.,Laval University | Riva M.,Laval University
Applied Geography | Year: 2012

Longitudinal analysis is rarely leveraged in the field of geography to understand neighbourhood change despite many studies documenting important transformations within metropolitan areas (e.g. gentrification, impoverishment of inner suburbs, etc.). This paper aims to identify and model trajectories of neighbourhood poverty in Montreal over five consecutive census years (1986, 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006), using Latent Class Growth Modelling. Neighbourhoods are classified in eight groups, identifying those with stable, increasing or declining trajectories of poverty. Multinomial logistic regression analysis shows that the proportion of residents with low levels of education, unemployment rate, proportion of recent immigrants and the proportion of renters measured at the beginning of the period (1986) are important predictors of poverty trajectories, as are variations throughout the study period (1986-2006) in the proportions of recent immigrants and of residents with low levels of education. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pearson A.L.,University of Otago | Apparicio P.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Riva M.,Laval University
International Journal of Health Geographics | Year: 2013

Background: Area-level socioeconomic deprivation has been shown to exert an independent effect on both individual and population health outcomes and health-related behaviours. Evidence also suggests that health and economic inequalities in many countries are increasing in some areas but may be on the decline in others. While area-level deprivation at a single point in time is known to influence health, the literature relating to longitudinal deprivation of communities and associated health impacts is sparse. This research makes a methodological contribution to this literature.Methods: Using a Latent Class Growth Model, we identified 12 deprivation trends (1991-2006) for small areas (n = 1621) in New Zealand. We then fitted regression models to assess the effects of trends of relative deprivation on a) all-cause mortality, and b) cardiovascular mortality (2005-2007) by census area unit. For comparison, we also fitted regression models to assess the effect of deprivation deciles (in 2006) on outcomes a) and b).Results: Using trends, we found a positive association between deprivation and mortality, except for two trends for both all-cause and CVD-related mortality. When comparing trends and deciles of deprivation, we observed similar patterns. However, we found that AIC values were slightly lower for the model including deciles, indicating better model fit.Conclusion: While we found that current deprivation was a slightly better predictor of mortality, the approach used here offers a potentially useful alternative. Future deprivation research must consider the possible loss of information about health benefits of living in areas where relative deprivation has improved in cross-sectional analyses. © 2013 Pearson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

The recent increase in ethno-cultural diversity has raised numerous questions in countries of immigration. One of them focuses on the processes and mechanisms that lead to the creation of integrated or multiethnic neighbourhoods. To address it, various models were elaborated to explain the phenomenon. We will first recall the main features of these various models. Afterward, we test the hypothesis proposed by Germain and Poirier to explain the evolution of ethno-cultural diversity in Montreal. This hypothesis supposes that it has evolved in a context where fluidity was central. Our aim is to propose an empirical test of this hypothesis using several methods (i.e., spatial analysis tools, regression model, and structural equation modeling). The results confirm the "fluidity" hypothesis, even if they also stress a stratification process between the various minority groups linked to neighbourhood socio-demographic characteristics. © 2015 Canadian Association of Geographers / L' Association canadienne des géographes.

Gould A.C.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Apparicio P.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Cloutier M.-S.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe
Canadian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: Physical access to stores selling groceries, fresh fruit and vegetables (FV) is essential for urban dwellers. In Canadian cities where low-density development practices are common, social and material deprivation may be compounded by poor geographic access to healthy food. This case study examines access to food stores selling fresh FV in Gatineau, Quebec, to identify areas where poor access is coincident with high deprivation. Method: Food retailers were identified using two secondary sources and each store was visited to establish the total surface area devoted to the sale of fresh FV. Four population-weighted accessibility measures were then calculated for each dissemination area (DA) using road network distances. A deprivation index was created using variables from the 2006 Statistics Canada census, also at the scale of the DA. Finally, six classes of accessibility to a healthy diet were constructed using a k-means classification procedure. These were mapped and superimposed over high deprivation areas. Results: Overall, deprivation is positively correlated with better accessibility. However, more than 18,000 residents (7.5% of the population) live in high deprivation areas characterized by large distances to the nearest retail food store (means of 1.4 km or greater) and virtually no access to fresh FV within walking distance (radius of 1 km). Conclusion: In this research, we identified areas where poor geographic access may introduce an additional constraint for residents already dealing with the challenges of limited financial and social resources. Our results may help guide local food security policies and initiatives. © Canadian Public Health Association, 2012.

Pham T.-T.-H.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Apparicio P.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Seguin A.-M.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Landry S.,University of South Florida | And 2 more authors.
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2012

Growing evidence is showing that across North American cities, underprivileged populations and racial and/or visible groups have disproportionally less access to vegetation than affluent groups, raising concerns of environmental inequity. This study aims to verify whether in Montreal (Canada) there is environmental inequity resulting from variations in urban vegetation for low-income people and visible minorities. More specifically, various vegetation indicators were extracted from very-high-resolution satellite images, including the proportion of city blocks, streets, alleys and backyards covered by total vegetation and trees/shrubs. Socio-demographic variables were obtained from 2006 Canada Census and rescaled to the city block level, by using a population-based weighing method. Statistical analysis indicates that there are disparities in the distribution of vegetation in Montreal which disfavour low-income people and, to a lesser extent, visible minorities. Disparities are also more pronounced on public land (streets, alleys) than on private land (backyards). Income is a major factor but cannot fully explain inequities among visible minorities. Notwithstanding the weak extent of such disparities, those vulnerable communities might need a better access to ecological services provided by vegetation, notably such as heat island mitigation. Compensatory equity needs to be addressed and our findings call for authorities to reconsider greening budgetary allocation and practices, especially in the most deprived neighbourhoods of the city. © 2012.

Ades J.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Apparicio P.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Seguin A.-M.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe
Canadian Geographer | Year: 2012

Recent studies on urban poverty in Canadian cities suggest a growing spatial concentration of poor populations within metropolitan regions. This article assesses trends in the intra-urban distribution of the poor population from 1986 to 2006 in eight of Canada's largest cities. We consider five well-known dimensions of segregation, as identified by, in order to examine changes in the spatial distribution of poor populations within metropolitan areas: evenness, exposure, concentration, clustering, and centralization. These indices were calculated for low-income populations at the census tract level using data from five Canadian censuses. Although each metropolitan area has distinctive characteristics, we were able to identify some general trends. The results suggest that, in 2006 compared to 1986, low-income populations lived in more spatially concentrated areas, which were, at the same time, socioeconomically more homogeneous and more dispersed throughout the metropolitan area. In addition, we observed that over the last twenty years areas of poverty have been located, for the most part, in neighbourhoods adjacent to downtown cores. Nevertheless, we found that poverty has mostly increased in suburban areas located outside inner-city neighbourhoods. Growing socioeconomic homogeneity and dispersion of low income areas in metropolitan areas reveal new spatial patterns of urban poverty distribution. These findings should be cause for concern as social isolation in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods could affect the life chances and opportunities for the residents of those areas. © Canadian Association of Geographers.

Cloutier M.-S.,University of Quebec at Rimouski | Apparicio P.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Dube J.,University of Quebec at Rimouski | Charbonneau J.,University of Quebec at Rimouski | Delage G.,University of Quebec at Rimouski
Transfusion | Year: 2012

Background: Many studies on factors that can affect the frequency of blood donation have shown the influence of several individual characteristics. However, few studies have analyzed regional variations in blood donation frequency. The objective of this article is to verify to what extent individual and geographic variables influence blood donation in the Province of Québec, Canada. Study design and methods: This article used a database provided by Héma-Québec (the organization in charge of blood collection in Québec), which included 426,247 donors, who made 1.4 million donations over a period of 5 years. Using the donors' residential postal codes and those of the blood collection sites, we created two geographic variables: the distance between the donor's place of residence and his or her collection site and each donor's region of residence. We subsequently modeled the frequency of blood donation and the different donor categories (based on the number of blood donations) using both a negative binomial regression model and an ordinal logistic regression model. Results: The results indicate that, once the individual characteristics have been taken into account, the geographic variables, including proximity to the collection site, have a significant impact on the frequency of blood donation. Likewise, according to the results of the negative binomial model, among the 17 regions in the Province of Québec, there are five regions where blood donation incidence rate ratios (IRRs) are very high, that is, Abitibi-Témiscamingue (IRR, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61-1.95); Bas-Saint-Laurent (IRR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.59-1.93); Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (IRR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.53-1.84); Centre-du-Québec (IRR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.51-1.83); and Chaudière-Appalaches (IRR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.48-1.78). Conclusion: Such knowledge of the geography of blood donations makes it possible to better target certain regions when planning new blood drives, to ensure a constant blood supply. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

Pham T.-T.-H.,University of Quebec at Montréal | Apparicio P.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | Landry S.,University of South Florida | Seguin A.-M.,Center Urbanisation Culture Societe | And 2 more authors.
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening | Year: 2013

Urban vegetation is shown to be unevenly distributed across cities and there is evidence of disparities in benefits provided by vegetation and of public health problems induced by urban heat islands. In order to improve vegetation cover, it remains crucial to understand the underpinning of such unevenness. In this paper, we investigate in Montreal (Canada) how the built environment, sociodemographic factors and administrative boroughs influence tree and lawn cover in public and residential land. The analysis was conducted at the dissemination area (DA) level, a Canadian census unit containing about 400-700 people. Six vegetation indicators were used as dependent variables: the proportion of a DA covered by trees/shrubs, lawn and total vegetation; the proportion of streets covered by trees/shrubs and the proportion of residential yards covered by trees/shrubs and total vegetation. Three sets of independent variables were studied: the built environment, sociodemographics and borough names. We used spatial autoregressive models to control for dependence and the spatial autoregressive term explained a large amount of variability in vegetation cover. The built-environment variables tend to have higher effects than the socio-demographic variables when predicting the three DA vegetation indicators, backyard vegetation, and to a lesser degree, street tree/shrub cover. In particular, population density is associated negatively to all indicators but positively to street tree cover. Socio-demographics are substantial in the explanation of the distribution of street trees, especially the presence of recent immigrants (negative effect) and of university degree holders (positive effect). These findings call for appropriate greening programs adapted to the local socio-demographic profile. The significance of boroughs also suggests the need for further research on the impact of within-city administrative hierarchies on the unevenness of urban vegetation. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.

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