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Morina D.,Center Tecnologic Of Nutricio lut Ctns | Morina D.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Puig P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Rios J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Statistics in Medicine

We present a model based on two-order integer-valued autoregressive time series to analyze the number of hospital emergency service arrivals caused by diseases that present seasonal behavior. We also introduce a method to describe this seasonality, on the basis of Poisson innovations with monthly means. We show parameter estimation by maximum likelihood and model validation and show several methods for forecasting, on the basis of long-time means and short-time and long-time prediction regions. We analyze an application to model the number of hospital admissions per week caused by influenza. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Caimari A.,Center Tecnologic Of Nutricio lut Ctns | Del Bas J.M.,Center Tecnologic Of Nutricio lut Ctns | Crescenti A.,Center Tecnologic Of Nutricio lut Ctns | Arola L.,Center Tecnologic Of Nutricio lut Ctns | Arola L.,Rovira i Virgili University
International Journal of Obesity

Objective:Procyanidins are polyphenolic compounds with beneficial effects on health in relation to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we evaluated the potential beneficial effects of low doses of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) on body weight and fat deposition.Design:Four groups of hamsters were fed either a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 30 days and supplemented with either GSPE at 25 mg per kg of body weight per day (STD-GSPE and HFD-GSPE groups) or vehicle (STD and HFD groups) during the last 15 days of the study.Results:A significant decrease in body weight gain was observed in both GSPE-treated animals at the end of the experiment. GSPE treatment significantly reduced the adiposity index and the weight of all the white adipose tissue depots studied (retroperitoneal (RWAT), mesenteric (MWAT), epididymal (EWAT) and inguinal (IWAT)) in both GSPE-treated groups. GSPE administration reversed the increase in plasma phospholipids induced by the HFD feeding. In the RWAT, GSPE treatment increased the mRNA expression of genes related to β-oxidation and the glycerolipid/free fatty acid (GL/FFA) cycle, mainly in HFD-GSPE animals. In the MWAT, the effects of GSPE at the transcriptional level were not as evident as in the RWAT. Moreover, GSPE treatment induced heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity in the RWAT and MWAT depots. The alterations in the lipid metabolic pathways induced by GSPE were accompanied by lower FFA levels in the plasma and decreased lipid and triglyceride accumulation in the MWAT.Conclusion:The use of GSPE at low doses protects against fat accumulation and improves the plasma lipid profile in hamsters. We suggest that GSPE exerts these effects in part through the activation of both β-oxidation and the GL/FFA cycle, mainly in the RWAT. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Jove M.,University of Lleida | Ayala V.,University of Lleida | Ramirez-Nunez O.,University of Lleida | Serrano J.C.E.,University of Lleida | And 8 more authors.
Cardiovascular Research

AimsAtherosclerosis is the main pathological process contributing to cardiovascular disease, with diet being the most important factor involved. Although the lipidome of atheromatous plaque has been studied previously, the use of comparative lipidomics and metabolomics in plasma in early atherogenesis could lead to the discovery of plasma biomarkers that allow not only disease prediction but also measurement of disease progression.Methods and resultsHigh-throughput techniques, such as liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, allowed us to compare the circulating and aortic lipidome and plasma metabolome in order to look for new molecular targets involved in atherogenesis. To achieve this objective, we chose the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as the best small animal model for diet-induced early atherosclerosis, because its lipoprotein metabolism is similar to that of humans. The results revealed the existence of several, previously unreported, changes in lipid and amino-acid metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ pathway, and oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, also involving cell senescence. Furthermore, as a proof of concept in the modelling of dietary influences in atherogenesis, we have measured the effect of a potential anti-atherogenic polyphenol extract on the reported pathways. Our results support a previously unknown role for taurocholic acid as a potential plasma biomarker of early atheromatous plaque formation.ConclusionThe use of comparative liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based lipidomics and metabolomics allows the discovery of novel pathways in atherogenesis, as well as new potential plasma biomarkers, which could allow us to predict disease in its early stages and measure its progression. © 2012 Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2012. Source

Cereto-Massague A.,Rovira i Virgili University | Guasch L.,Rovira i Virgili University | Valls C.,Rovira i Virgili University | Mulero M.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 4 more authors.

Decoys are molecules that are presumed to be inactive against a target (i.e. will not likely bind to the target) and are used to validate the performance of molecular docking or a virtual screening workflow. The Directory of Useful Decoys database (http://dud.docking.org/) provides a free directory of decoys for use in virtual screening, though it only contains a limited set of decoys for 40 targets. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an application called DecoyFinder that selects, for a given collection of active ligands of a target, a set of decoys from a database of compounds. Decoys are selected if they are similar to active ligands according to five physical descriptors (molecular weight, number of rotational bonds, total hydrogen bond donors, total hydrogen bond acceptors and the octanol-water partition coefficient) without being chemically similar to any of the active ligands used as an input (according to the Tanimoto coefficient between MACCS fingerprints). To the best of our knowledge, DecoyFinder is the first application designed to build target-specific decoy sets. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Arola-Arnal A.,Rovira i Virgili University | Arola-Arnal A.,Center Tecnologic Of Nutricio lut Ctns | Blade C.,Rovira i Virgili University

Mi(cro)RNAs are small non-coding RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides in length that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. These RNAs have been shown to be involved in a several biological processes, human diseases and metabolic disorders. Proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant polyphenol class in the human diet, have positive health effects on a variety of metabolic disorders such as inflammation, obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance. The present study aimed to evaluate whether proanthocyanidin-rich natural extracts modulate miRNA expression. Using microarray analysis and Q-PCR, we investigated miRNA expression in HepG2 cells treated with proanthocyanidins. Our results showed that when HepG2 cells were treated with grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), cocoa proanthocyanidin extract (CPE) or pure epigallocatechin gallate isolated from green tea (EGCG), fifteen, six and five differentially expressed miRNAs, respectively, were identified out of 904 mRNAs. Specifically, miR-30b* was downregulated by the three treatments, and treatment with GSPE or CPE upregulated miR-1224-3p, miR-197 and miR-532-3p. Therefore, these results provide evidence of the capacity of dietary proanthocyanidins to influence microRNA expression, suggesting a new mechanism of action of proanthocyanidins. © 2011 Arola-Arnal, Bladé. Source

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