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Legendre P.,University of Montréal | De Caceres M.,Center Tecnologic Forestal Of Catalonia
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013

Beta diversity can be measured in different ways. Among these, the total variance of the community data table Y can be used as an estimate of beta diversity. We show how the total variance of Y can be calculated either directly or through a dissimilarity matrix obtained using any dissimilarity index deemed appropriate for pairwise comparisons of community composition data. We addressed the question of which index to use by coding 16 indices using 14 properties that are necessary for beta assessment, comparability among data sets, sampling issues and ordination. Our comparison analysis classified the coefficients under study into five types, three of which are appropriate for beta diversity assessment. Our approach links the concept of beta diversity with the analysis of community data by commonly used methods like ordination and anova. Total beta can be partitioned into Species Contributions (SCBD: degree of variation of individual species across the study area) and Local Contributions (LCBD: comparative indicators of the ecological uniqueness of the sites) to Beta Diversity. Moreover, total beta can be broken up into within- and among-group components by manova, into orthogonal axes by ordination, into spatial scales by eigenfunction analysis or among explanatory data sets by variation partitioning. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.2-01 | Award Amount: 4.36M | Year: 2012

INFRES aims to accelerate the technological development and open new paths to EUs renewable targets by producing research based knowledge, technological solutions and service innovations for forest residue feedstock supply. INFRES aims at high efficiency and precise deliveries of woody feedstock to heat, power and biorefining industries by: Producing technological and logistic innovations for developing new harvesting, transport and storage technology for forest fuel procurement, Demonstrating new solutions in full supply chains from harvesting to transport and storage in real operational environment Spotting the technological, economic, regulatory and other bottlenecks in the innovation structures for the forest energy sector, Assessing the environmental, economical and social sustainability for the developed logistics including scenarios for different fuel sources, methods, technologies and transport distances and Disseminating the outcomes of research and demonstrations to the practices. Project consortium has 23 partners including 9 leading forest energy research organizations of accompanied with 14 SME along the biomass supply chain. SMEs include manufacturers of harvesting technology, chippers, feedstock supply enterprises, forest harvesting and transport providers, truck technology and IT service provider to manage fleet and storages. During the project INFRES develops and demonstrates technological and logistical solutions that decrease the fossil energy input in the biomass supply by 20% and reduces the raw material losses by 15%. The cost of supply can be reduced by 10-20% and precision of supply improves the economic outcome of CHP production by 10%. The CO2 emissions of feedstock supply will diminish by 10%. With the novel technologies and efficient transfer of best practices between the countries in the consortium and other countries with similar natural conditions the volume of forest energy supply in EU27 by 2015 will be 30% higher than today.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.2-06 | Award Amount: 7.49M | Year: 2012

Europe has set a clear and ambitious strategy (Europe 2020 Strategy) to base its economy on a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Part of this concept is to initiate the development towards an innovative, resource efficient and bio-based (bio-economy) European economy. Such development should contribute to economic growth and the creation of jobs, while mitigating climate change effects and providing effective responses to address the need for carbon neutral energy. In this context, European forests and the forest-based sector play an increasingly important role in fostering smart, sustainable and inclusive growth in Europe based on the production of eco-services and eco-efficient products from wood and non-wood-based products. Up to now the forest-based sector has been mainly build around wood based products. However, also multipurpose trees and non-wood forest products and services can significantly contribute to the achievement of the set goals. The objective of the STAR TREE project is to provide better understanding, knowledge, guidance and tools to support relevant stakeholders (e.g., forest owners, resource managers, enterprises, decision makers, other public and private entities) in optimising the management of multi-purpose trees and developing innovative approaches for increasing the marketability and profitability of NWFP for a more competitive rural economy. The overall impacts of the project are in the long term to support a sustainable rural development through a stronger utilisation of business opportunities based on non-wood forest products and multipurpose trees. This will particularly benefit the rural population as much as land owners and companies through a more competitive and robust rural economy and a better quality of life.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2009.2.1.3.1;ENV.2009.1.1.3.1 | Award Amount: 8.93M | Year: 2010

The GHG-Europe project aims to improve our understanding and capacity for predicting the European terrestrial carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) budget by applying a systematic, comprehensive and integrative approach. GHG-Europe quantifies the annual to decadal variability of the carbon and GHG budgets of terrestrial ecosystems in EU27 plus Switzerland and in six data-rich European regions via data-model integration, diagnostic and predictive modelling. Models are calibrated by multi-site observations. Research includes CO2, CH4 and N2O in forests, croplands, grasslands, shrublands, peatlands and soils. Via an integrated approach, GHG Europe scales up consistently from local to regional and continental scale via scale dependent error propagation and systematic quantification of uncertainties, model validation at different scales and top-down verification by atmospheric inversion models. At regional and European scale lateral C transport by land use, trade and rivers are included. Variability in C and GHG budgets is attributed to natural (climate) and anthropogenic drivers (N deposition, land use, past and present management) by synthesis of past and emerging experiments, targeted observations in hot spots and hot moments and model sensitivity analyses. For this purpose, observations are extended to under-sampled regions and ecosystems with likely high importance for the European C budget: forests and land use change in Eastern Europe and Mediterranen shrublands. The future vulnerability of carbon pools and risks of positive feedbacks in the climate-carbon system are assessed by scenario analyses with biophysical models and by integrating feedbacks with socio-economic changes and EU climate and land use policies. GHG-Europe uses a bidirectional interaction with stakeholders to provide regular and timely scientific advice targeted to the emerging needs of the UNFCCC process and for implementing post-2012 climate commitments in Europe.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-2013-1 | Award Amount: 1.43M | Year: 2013

The aim of SUSTAFFOR (Bridging effectiveness and sustainability in afforestation / reforestation in a climate change context: new technologies for improving soil features and plant performance) is to conceive, produce, develop and on-field validate novel techniques aiming at improving afforestation / reforestation projects from an environmental, technical and economic point of view, as well as to explore the synergies between them. These novel techniques are: 1. MULCHING TECHNIQUES, aiming at reducing the need for weeding and soil water evaporation: 1.1. A flexible plate based on a mixture of bio-plastics in a matrix of a woven structure of vegetable fibers. 1.2. A mat based on plant proteins and non-woven vegetable fibers. 1.3. Different biodegradable mats made of woven and non-woven textiles based on natural fibers, strengthened with bio-resins. 1.4. A reusable mat built with recycled rubber (worn-out tires and conveyor belts). 2. SOIL CONDITIONERS, aiming at retaining and releasing water available for plants while improving soil structure and fertility. A mix of new generation hydro-absorbent polymers combined with fertilizer and growth precursors. All of them are built in Europe, made exclusively with local materials mainly coming from waste, and are either 100% biodegradable or re-usable inert material. SUSTAFFOR Partnership is: - 4 SMEs producing novel techniques: DTC, La Zeloise, Ecorub (Belgium) and Terracottem International (Spain) - 2 SMEs specialized on commercialization of reforestation and afforestation techniques: Terrezu (Spain, project coordinator) and Ceres (Poland) - 4 RTDs with different specializations: Forest Sciences Center of Catalonia (Spain, scientific and technical conception and design of afforestation and reforestation and soil sciences); IC2MP - Environmental and Material Chemistry Institute of Poitiers (France, soil sciences); Belgian Textile Research Centre (Belgium, materials sciences and mechanical tests) and Edma Innova (Spain, electronic and scientific equipment)


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ISIB-03-2015 | Award Amount: 5.94M | Year: 2016

SIMRA seeks to advance understanding of social innovation (SI) and innovative governance in agriculture, forestry and rural development (RD), and how to boost them, particularly in marginalised rural areas across Europe, with a focus on the Mediterranean region (including non-EU) where there is limited evidence of outcomes and supporting conditions. These objectives will be achieved by: 1. Developing systematic frameworks: a) theoretical - for improved knowledge of the complexity of SIs and its dimensions, and its impact on unfolding territorial capital; b) operational - based on a trans-disciplinary coalition (researchers and practitioners) to advance understanding of preconditions and success factors (e.g. instruments, incentives etc.) for implementing/operationalizing SI. 2. Creating a categorisation of SIs which encompasses the specificities in terms of social priorities, relationships/collaborations etc. and serves as an instrument to explore reasons why regions with similar conditions display diverging paths and to turn diversity into strength. 3. Creating an integrated set of methods to evaluate SI and its impacts on economic, social, environmental, institutional and policy dimensions of territorial capital. 4. Co-constructed evaluation of SIs in case studies across the spatial variation of European rural areas, considering which components of territorial capital foster and, or mainstream RD. 5. Synthesis and dissemination of new or improved knowledge of SIs and novel governance mechanisms to promote social capital and institutional capacity building and inform effective options/solutions for shaping sustainable development trajectories. 6. Creating collaborative learning and networking opportunities and launching innovative actions at different/multiple scales, with continuous interactions among researchers, knowledge brokers and stakeholders to foster and mainstream SI, leaving a durable legacy.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.2-2 | Award Amount: 11.59M | Year: 2012

Sustainable governance of our biological resources requires reliable scientific knowledge that meets the needs of society. Current biodiversity observation systems and environmental datasets are unbalanced in coverage and not integrated, limiting integrative analyses and implementation of environmental policies. EU BON presents an innovative approach towards integration of biodiversity information systems from on-ground to remote sensing data, for addressing policy and information needs in a timely and customized manner. EU BON will provide integration between social networks of science and policy and technological networks of interoperating IT infrastructures, resulting in a new open-access platform for sharing biodiversity data and tools, and greatly advance biodiversity knowledge in Europe. EU BONs 30 partners from 18 countries are members of networks of biodiversity data-holders, monitoring organisations, and leading scientific institutions. EU BON will build on existing components, in particular GBIF, LifeWatch infrastructures, and national biodiversity data centres. EU BON will 1) enable greater interoperability of data layers and systems through adoption of new standards; 2) advance data integration by new (modelling) technologies; 3) increase data mobilisation via scientific communities, citizen scientists, and potential data users; 4) develop strategies for future harmonizing and mainstreaming of biodiversity recording and monitoring; 5) improve analytical tools and services interpreting biodiversity data; 6) support the science-policy interface by timely information and scenario development; 7) link integrated, customized information to relevant stakeholders, and 8) strengthen overall European capacities and infrastructures for environmental information management. EU BONs deliverables include a comprehensive European Biodiversity Portal for all stakeholder communities, and strategies for a global implementation of GEO BON and supporting IPBES.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: LCE-14-2014 | Award Amount: 1.81M | Year: 2015

SecureChain promotes a Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) that meets highest environmental quality standards and targets local biomass suppliers, energy producers and financial sector players to mobilise more biomass, maximise the share of sustainable bioenergy in the final energy consumption, and reduce the transaction costs for further market uptake of most efficient systems in six European model regions. An open call for SSCM pilot projects is launched encouraging market actors to mobilise and secure additional supplies of biomass from regional sources. Following a merit-based, objective competition, selected SMEs are awarded 15-20 Innovation Vouchers for the realisation of proposed SSCM pilot projects with the support of specialised advisors. Learning Labs for SME clusters support the implementation of most sustainable and energy efficient solutions in each model region. Tested quality assurance tools are readily installed in the pilots and SMEs receive proper training. A complete LCA of pilot supply chains evaluates their broader environmental and socio-economic impacts, ensuring that QA protocols meet eligible international sustainability standards for high efficiency and low carbon footprint. Suppliers are prepared for and ultimately acquire sustainability certification via independent audits. To facilitate critical financial proofs for market actors and financiers, a risk assessment of supply chains in line with a close mentoring of pilot teams by financial advisors is carried out. Roadshows promoting the pilots showcase that future-proof investment proposals can attract local to international capital for secured implementation and upscaling of efficient solutions. SecureChain exploits and disseminates a broadly transferable SSCM model for local bioenergy chains that fosters sustainable, environmentally compatible mobilisation of biomass sources and a proactive promotion of the market through conscious investments into the bioenergy sector.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 1.89M | Year: 2016

Forest policy and decision makers are challenged by the need to balance the increasing demand for forest-based services (e.g. recreation, protection, conservation) and wood-based products (e.g. timber, fuelwood) with the foreseen scarcity of supply in different situations as for example disturbances (e.g. wildfires, droughts). Under these circumstances research on the impacts of different disturbances on the supply of services and goods is needed. To achieve these multipurpose forest managements and to integrate risk and uncertainty, New tools and models are needed. Furthermore, these tools and models may help to develop new policies that target the achievement of certain level of services while sustaining a certain level of goods supply. This project will take advantage of the knowledge on these topics in European and American organizations. It will further serve to exchange and generate knowledge on multipurpose forests, addressing risk and uncertainty as well as to strengthen research collaboration through active networking, staff exchange and dissemination activities between the participants.

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